How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stierle, A. (2008). Materials science. Tracking corrosion cracking. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5887), 349–350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Choi, H., & So, P. T. C. (2014). Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy. Scientific Reports, 4, 6626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Papp, B., Pál, C., & Hurst, L. D. (2004). Metabolic network analysis of the causes and evolution of enzyme dispensability in yeast. Nature, 429(6992), 661–664.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Patanè, D., De Gori, P., Chiarabba, C., & Bonaccorso, A. (2003). Magma ascent and the pressurization of Mount Etna’s volcanic system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5615), 2061–2063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rankin, J. (2008). Effects of Antenatal Exercise on Psychological Well-Being, Pregnancy and Birth Outcome. Whurr Publishers Ltd.
An edited book
Grobman, S. (2016). The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War (A. Cerra, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Pugalendhi, G. K., David, M., & Victoire, A. A. (2011). A Hybrid Approach to Estimate True Density Function for Gene Expression Data. In D. Nagamalai, E. Renault, & M. Dhanuskodi (Eds.), Advances in Digital Image Processing and Information Technology: First International Conference on Digital Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, DPPR 2011, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India, September 23-25, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 44–54). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, November 11). On The 120th Anniversary Of The X-Ray, A Look At How It Changed Our View Of The World. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Maritime Administration: Proceeds from the Sale of Obsolete Vessels Were Accounted for, Allocated, and Disbursed Consistent with Applicable Law (GAO-17-280). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughan, L. (2008). Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2016, September 24). Syrian Forces Capture Refugee Camp, Tightening Siege of Rebels in Aleppo. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stierle, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Choi & So, 2014; Stierle, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Choi & So, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Papp et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Patanè et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Behavioral Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Behav. Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-400X
ISSN (online)1879-2669
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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