How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tucker, B. E. (2013). Geophysics. Reducing earthquake risk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6150), 1070–1072.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wan, Z., & Zhang, G. (2014). Controlled synthesis and visible light photocatalytic activity of Bi12GeO20 uniform microcrystals. Scientific Reports, 4, 6298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marty, B., Dewonck, S., & France-Lanord, C. (2003). Geochemical evidence for efficient aquifer isolation over geological timeframes. Nature, 425(6953), 55–58.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ding, L., He, S., Miao, S., Jorgensen, M. R., Leubner, S., Yan, C., … Schmidt, O. G. (2014). Ultrasmall SnO₂ nanocrystals: hot-bubbling synthesis, encapsulation in carbon layers and applications in high capacity Li-ion storage. Scientific Reports, 4, 4647.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armajani, J. (2011). Modern Islamist Movements. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Nowak, R., & Whelan, A. (Eds.). (2016). Networked Music Cultures: Contemporary Approaches, Emerging Issues. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, C.-W., Chan, L.-W., Tsai, Y.-P., & Hung, Y.-P. (2006). Augmented Stereo Panoramas. In P. J. Narayanan, S. K. Nayar, & H.-Y. Shum (Eds.), Computer Vision – ACCV 2006: 7th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Hyderabad, India, January 13-16, 2006. Proceedings, Part I (pp. 41–49). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 5). Human Embryos Grown In Lab For Record Period Of Time. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Weather Forecasting: Important Issues on Automated Weather Processing System Need Resolution (No. IMTEC-93-12BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi, A. (2016). Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, May 31). When the Fire Fades. New York Times, p. AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tucker, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Tucker, 2013; Wan & Zhang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wan & Zhang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Marty, Dewonck, & France-Lanord, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ding et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Behavioral Science
AbbreviationCan. J. Behav. Sci.
ISSN (print)0008-400X
ISSN (online)1879-2669
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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