How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wurtz, R.H. Retrospective. David H. Hubel (1926-2013). Science 2013, 342, 572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butler, D.; Pockley, P. Monsanto Makes Rice Genome Public. Nature 2000, 404, 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deán-Ben, X.L.; Bay, E.; Razansky, D. Functional Optoacoustic Imaging of Moving Objects Using Microsecond-Delay Acquisition of Multispectral Three-Dimensional Tomographic Data. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5878.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wong, Y.H.; Ryu, T.; Seridi, L.; Ghosheh, Y.; Bougouffa, S.; Qian, P.-Y.; Ravasi, T. Transcriptome Analysis Elucidates Key Developmental Components of Bryozoan Lophophore Development. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tapiero, C.S. Risk Finance and Asset Pricing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118268155.
An edited book
Kogure, T. The Astrophysics of Emission-Line Stars; Leung, K.-C., Ed.; Astrophysics and Space Science Library; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; Vol. 342; ISBN 9780387345000.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertino, E.; Martino, L.D.; Paci, F.; Squicciarini, A.C. Standards for Web Services Security. In Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures; Martino, L., Paci, F., Squicciarini, A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 45–77 ISBN 9783540877417.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Greener But Not Cleaner? How Trees Can Worsen Urban Air Pollution (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: German DTV Transition Differs from U.S. Transition in Many Respects, but Certain Key Challenges Are Similar; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spowart, S.A. Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation: Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Pain, Is There A Connection For Public Health? Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bennhold, K.; Erlanger, S.; Yeginsu, C. Britain on Edge As Terror Alert Hits Top Level. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles