How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McMahon, R.J. Chemistry. Chemical Reactions Involving Quantum Tunneling. Science 2003, 299, 833–834.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ćuk, M.; Stewart, S.T. Making the Moon from a Fast-Spinning Earth: A Giant Impact Followed by Resonant Despinning. Science 2012, 338, 1047–1052.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blaha, G.; Stanley, R.E.; Steitz, T.A. Formation of the First Peptide Bond: The Structure of EF-P Bound to the 70S Ribosome. Science 2009, 325, 966–970.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deutman, A.B.C.; Monnereau, C.; Elemans, J.A.A.W.; Ercolani, G.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Rowan, A.E. Mechanism of Threading a Polymer through a Macrocyclic Ring. Science 2008, 322, 1668–1671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziegler, M. Geotechnische Nachweise Nach EC 7 Und DIN 1054; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2012; ISBN 9783433601228.
An edited book
Gan, L. Data You Need to Know about China: Research Report of China Household Finance Survey•2012; Yin, Z., Jia, N., Xu, S., Ma, S., Zheng, L., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; ISBN 9783642381508.
A chapter in an edited book
Blümm, M.; Schmunk, S. Digital Research Infrastructures: DARIAH. In 3D Research Challenges in Cultural Heritage II: How to Manage Data and Knowledge Related to Interpretative Digital 3D Reconstructions of Cultural Heritage; Münster, S., Pfarr-Harfst, M., Kuroczyński, P., Ioannides, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 62–73 ISBN 9783319476469.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 29 Of The Most Surreal Landscapes On The Planet Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office VA Student Financial Aid: Management Actions Needed to Reduce Overlap in Approving Education and Training Programs and to Assess State Approving Agencies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ritter, D. The EU and Conflict: Critically Assessing the Success of the ESDP and Its Impact in Conflict Areas. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mazzetti, M. New Law Shifts Fight on Claims for 9/11 Victims. New York Times 2016, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles