How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadis, S. Astronomers reveal the secrets of the name game. Nature 2000, 406, 819.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A. Methane storms on Saturn’s moon Titan. Nature 2006, 442, 428–431.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rastogi, D.; Suzuki, M.; Greally, J.M. Differential epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in childhood obesity-associated asthma. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Froese, D.G.; Westgate, J.A.; Reyes, A.V.; Enkin, R.J.; Preece, S.J. Ancient permafrost and a future, warmer Arctic. Science 2008, 321, 1648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burk, F. Lebesgue Measure and Integration; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1997; ISBN 9781118032732.
An edited book
Krister Segerberg on Logic of Actions; Trypuz, R., Ed.; Outstanding Contributions to Logic; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 1; ISBN 9789400770454.
A chapter in an edited book
Nuñez, L. Tools for Forecasting or Warning as well as Hazard Assessment to Reduce Impact of Natural Disasters on Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. In Natural Disasters and Extreme Events in Agriculture: Impacts and Mitigation; Sivakumar, M.V.K., Motha, R.P., Das, H.P., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 71–92 ISBN 9783540224907.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Taub, B. Stoned Lab Rats Become Too Lazy For Tests, Study Finds Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Labor: Further Management Improvements Needed to Address Information Technology and Financial Controls; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galan, M. Educational practices to support homeless students. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Gasps From the Grandstand After the Invoice Arrives. New York Times 2011, SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles