How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mahowald, N. Aerosol Indirect Effect on Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate. Science 2011, 334, 794–796.
A journal article with 2 authors
Monroe, C.; Kim, J. Scaling the Ion Trap Quantum Processor. Science 2013, 339, 1164–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rasmussen, L.E.L.; Riddle, H.S.; Krishnamurthy, V. Mellifluous Matures to Malodorous in Musth. Nature 2002, 415, 975–976.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ranz, J.M.; Castillo-Davis, C.I.; Meiklejohn, C.D.; Hartl, D.L. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression and Evolution of the Drosophila Transcriptome. Science 2003, 300, 1742–1745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Law, H. The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring and Learning; John Wiley & Sons: Oxford, 2013; ISBN 9781118598276.
An edited book
Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings; Johansson, B., Andersson, B., Holmberg, N., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 194; ISBN 9783319113692.
A chapter in an edited book
Panasyuk, M.I. The Ion Radiation Belts: Experiments and Models. In Effects of Space Weather on Technology Infrastructure; Daglis, I.A., Ed.; NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; pp. 65–90 ISBN 9781402027482.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Newly Discovered Dinosaur Had Neck Half The Length Of Its Body (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Weather: Status of FAA’s New Hazardous Weather Detection and Dissemination Systems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1987;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weaver, P.Q. Relationships between Leadership Practices of Founders and Successors and Economic Performance of Select Family Businesses. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J. HOME FRONT/Erin St.; Trading Boardroom for a Camper’s Bunk. New York Times 2004, 101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles