How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von der Linde, D. Materials Science. A Picosecond View of Melting. Science 2003, 302, 1345–1346.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, A.; Takahashi, Y. Manipulation of Elementary Charge in a Silicon Charge-Coupled Device. Nature 2001, 410, 560–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonifacio, P.; Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A. Astrophysics: How Did the Metals in a Giant Star Originate? Nature 2003, 422, 834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fitzer, S.C.; Phoenix, V.R.; Cusack, M.; Kamenos, N.A. Ocean Acidification Impacts Mussel Control on Biomineralisation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S. Advanced Wireless Networks; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119096863.
An edited book
Screening for Depression and Other Psychological Problems in Diabetes: A Practical Guide; Lloyd, C.E., Pouwer, F., Hermanns, N., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; ISBN 9780857297501.
A chapter in an edited book
Wheeler, D.S.; Zingarelli, B.; Wong, H.R. The Role of Extracellular Heat Shock Proteins in Cellular Inflammation and Injury. In Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine; Vincent, J.-L., Ed.; Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; pp. 45–51 ISBN 9783540301554.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 12 Ways To Deal With A Climate Change Denier – The BBQ Guide (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Women’s Educational Equity Act: A Review of Program Goals and Strategies Needed; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theisen, T.D. Improving the Collaboration Infrastructure of an Online Inter -Institutional Consortium. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. DeGrom Bounces Back in Style, but Cespedes Exits With Soreness. New York Times 2017, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles