How to format your references using the Journal of Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone, R. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics. Science 2000, 290, 250–252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phair, R.D.; Misteli, T. High mobility of proteins in the mammalian cell nucleus. Nature 2000, 404, 604–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shi, F.; Li, J.; Wilson, R.J.S. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6739.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Zolensky, M.E.; Kimura, M.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Uesugi, M.; et al. Itokawa dust particles: a direct link between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites. Science 2011, 333, 1113–1116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collins, D. Magic in the Ancient Greek World; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470696453.
An edited book
Equidistribution in Number Theory, An Introduction; Granville, A., Rudnick, Z., Eds.; NATO Science Series; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2007; Vol. 237; ISBN 9781402054020.
A chapter in an edited book
Jie, Y. Development on Copper Smelters in China Today. In Engineering Solutions for Sustainability: Materials and Resources II; Fergus, J.W., Mishra, B., Anderson, D., Sarver, E.A., Neelameggham, N.R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 43–54 ISBN 9783319486130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Imaging.

Blog post
Davis, J. Patients Diagnosed With Drug-Resistant Malaria In The UK For The First Time (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Guaranteed Student Loans: Potential Default and Cost Reduction Options; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nepal, R.M. Class II MHC Function in Macrophages and Mice Infected with Mycobacterium. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.; Barnes, B. Hulu’s Chief Since 2013 Quits to Lead Sony TV Unit. New York Times 2017, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Imaging
AbbreviationJ. Imaging
ISSN (online)2313-433X

Other styles