How to format your references using the Chaos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 H. Eicken, Nature 497, 431 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 P.-A. Clavien and J. Deiss, Nature 519, 286 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 B. Doligez, E. Danchin, and J. Clobert, Science 297, 1168 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Yu, Z. Luo, Y. Chen, Q. Liu, F. Hua, G. Xu, and P. Yu, Sci. Rep. 4, 7317 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 The American Ceramic Society, Progress in Nanotechnology (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009).
An edited book
1 B. Henderson, editor , Moonlighting Cell Stress Proteins in Microbial Infections (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
1 M. Schein, in Schein’s Common Sense Emergency Abdominal Surgery: An Unconventional Book for Trainees and Thinking Surgeons, edited by M. Schein, P. Rogers, and A. Assalia (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009), pp. 25–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos.

Blog post
1 J. Davis, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Commercial Space Transportation: Industry Trends and Key Issues Affecting Federal Oversight and International Competitiveness (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 K.M. Nellenbach, Contributions of Oral Language, Problem-Solving, and Reading Attitudes to Young Adolescents’ Silent Reading Comprehension, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 B. Rothenberg, New York Times SP6 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos
ISSN (print)1054-1500
ISSN (online)1089-7682
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
General Physics and Astronomy
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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