How to format your references using the Chaos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 P. Bradford, Nature 483, 151 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 M.H. Kershaw and M.J. Smyth, Science 341, 41 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 G.E. Robinson, R.D. Fernald, and D.F. Clayton, Science 322, 896 (2008).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 D. Ma, N. Zerangue, Y.F. Lin, A. Collins, M. Yu, Y.N. Jan, and L.Y. Jan, Science 291, 316 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 B. Wills, Purposely Profitable (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016).
An edited book
1 P.F. Patel-Schneider, Y. Pan, P. Hitzler, P. Mika, L. Zhang, J.Z. Pan, I. Horrocks, and B. Glimm, editors , The Semantic Web – ISWC 2010: 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part II (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
1 A. Fokoue, M. Srivatsa, and R. Young, in Web Information System Engineering – WISE 2011: 12th International Conference, Sydney, Australia, October 13-14, 2011. Proceedings, edited by A. Bouguettaya, M. Hauswirth, and L. Liu (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011), pp. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos.

Blog post
1 J. Fang, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Public Transit: Challenges Funding, Investing in Systems, and Coordinating Services (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 E.P. Rhoads, Knowledge Management Practices in U.S. Federal Agencies: The Catalyst for E-Government Transformation, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 M. Pilon, New York Times B18 (2014).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos
ISSN (print)1054-1500
ISSN (online)1089-7682
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
General Physics and Astronomy
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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