How to format your references using the Chaos citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chaos. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 S. Goodman, “Bricks and mortar,” Nature 427(6975), 660 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 R.M. Flowers, and K.A. Farley, “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He evidence for an ancient Grand Canyon,” Science 338(6114), 1616–1619 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 J.O. Brunkard, A.M. Runkel, and P.C. Zambryski, “Evolution. Comment on ‘A promiscuous intermediate underlies the evolution of LEAFY DNA binding specificity,’” Science 347(6222), 621 (2015).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y.R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 W. Buckel, and R. Kleiner, Supraleitung (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012).
An edited book
1 M. Chatterjee, and K. Kashfi, editors , Cell Signaling & Molecular Targets in Cancer, 1st ed. (Springer, New York, NY, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
1 A. Webster-Wright, and J. Higgs, in Realising Exemplary Practice-Based Education, edited by J. Higgs, D. Sheehan, J.B. Currens, W. Letts, and G.M. Jensen (SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2013), pp. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chaos.

Blog post
1 K. Hamilton, “Why Has Japan’s Massacre Of Disabled Gone Unnoticed? For Answers, Look To The Past,” IFLScience, (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Stafford Student Loans: Lower Subsidy Payments Could Achieve Savings Without Affecting Access (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 R.J. Yackel, Recruitment and Retention of Nurses in Long -Term Care within the Florida Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 M. Pilon, “Game Time Is Adjusted; Jewish School Will Play,” New York Times, B9 (2012).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChaos
ISSN (print)1054-1500
ISSN (online)1089-7682
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Mathematical Physics
General Physics and Astronomy
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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