How to format your references using the Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Mestel L. Obituary: Hermann Bondi (1919-2005). Nature 2005;437:828.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Csabai I, Szathmáry E. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 2011;332:1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Ferain I, Colinge CA, Colinge J-P. Multigate transistors as the future of classical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Nature 2011;479:310–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Watters TR, Head JW, Solomon SC, Robinson MS, Chapman CR, Denevi BW, et al. Evolution of the Rembrandt impact basin on Mercury. Science 2009;324:618–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bhaskar K, Varadan Retd. TK. Plates. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Schädel M, Shaughnessy D, editors. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements. 2nd ed. 2014. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Khare S, Katre P, Galande S. Epigenetic Regulation of Islet Development and Regeneration. In: A. Hardikar A, editor. Pancreatic Islet Biology, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 83–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Rising Seas Threaten To Drown Important Mangrove Forests, Unless We Intervene. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rising-seas-threaten-drown-important-mangrove-forests-unless-we-intervene/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. School Lunch Program: Buy American Procedures at Commodity Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Unison-Pace WJ. Investigating generational differences of perceived uncivilized behaviors between students and faculty in nursing education. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Williams J. The Head Honcho’s Head Honcho. New York Times 2017:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Association of Radiologists Journal
AbbreviationCan. Assoc. Radiol. J.
ISSN (print)0846-5371
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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