How to format your references using the Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibbs RA. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Bringing genomics and genetics back together. Science 2011;331:548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scott SH, Crevecoeur F. Neuroscience: Feedback throttled down for smooth moves. Nature 2014;509:38–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bunge J, Epstein SS, Peterson DG. Comment on “Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil.” Science 2006;313:918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cousineau B, Lawrence S, Smith D, Belfort M. Retrotransposition of a bacterial group II intron. Nature 2000;404:1018–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker WL, Marn MV, Zawada CC. The Price Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Akimoto H. Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics. vol. 4. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Reichenbächer M, Popp J. Molecular Structure Determination by Means of Combined Application of Methods. In: Popp J, editor. Challenges in Molecular Structure Determination, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 313–437.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Study Suggests Population Control Is No Quick Fix For Environmental Problems. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems and Outlook of Small Private Liberal Arts Colleges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Creason PJ. The assessment of student learning outcomes at a California community college: Insight from faculty in a single department. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cave D, Kwai I. Australians Shocked by a U.S. Killing: ‘It Would Have Never Happened Here.’ New York Times 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Association of Radiologists Journal
AbbreviationCan. Assoc. Radiol. J.
ISSN (print)0846-5371
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles