How to format your references using the Conservation Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goebel T (2007) Anthropology. The missing years for modern humans. Science 315: 194–196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meibom A, Frei R (2002) Evidence for an ancient osmium isotopic reservoir in Earth. Science 296: 516–518.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behnia K, Balicas L, Kopelevich Y (2007) Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth. Science 317: 1729–1731.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Keppler F, Harper DB, Greule M, Ott U, Sattler T, Schöler HF, Hamilton JTG (2014) Chloromethane release from carbonaceous meteorite affords new insight into Mars lander findings. Sci Rep 4: 7010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liautaud M (2016) Breaking Through. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lardier C (2013) The Soyuz Launch Vehicle: The Two Lives of an Engineering Triumph. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Wajnberg E (2010) Genetics of the Behavioral Ecology of Egg Parasitoids. In: Consoli FL, Parra JRP, Zucchi RA, eds. Egg Parasitoids in Agroecosystems with Emphasis on Trichogramma. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 149–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Physiology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) NASA’s Messenger Will Crash Into Mercury This Month. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Air Pollution: EPA Needs More Data From FHwA on Changes to Highway Projects ( No. RCED-90-72). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchison D (2017) An Examination of Educational Equity: The Impact of Accountability and Finance Reform Policies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) It’s Fresh, Local and Elegant. New York Times NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goebel, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Meibom and Frei, 2002; Goebel, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meibom and Frei, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Keppler et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Physiology
AbbreviationConserv. Physiol.
ISSN (online)2051-1434

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