How to format your references using the Conservation Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lin H (2014) Information technology. Technology’s limited role in resolving debates over digital surveillance. Science 345: 728–730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bland PA, Artemieva NA (2003) Efficient disruption of small asteroids by Earth’s atmosphere. Nature 424: 288–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ford EB, Seager S, Turner EL (2001) Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability. Nature 412: 885–887.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wachter S, Ramirez-Ruiz E, Dwarkadas VV, Kouveliotou C, Granot J, Patel SK, Figer D (2008) An infrared ring around the magnetar SGR 1900+14. Nature 453: 626–628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Britton M (2015) YouthNation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ślęzak D, Kim T-H, Kiumi A, Jiang T, Verner J, Abrahão S, eds. (2009) Advances in Software Engineering: International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications, ASEA 2009 Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mu K, Liu W, Jin Z (2011) An Approach to Generating Proposals for Handling Inconsistent Software Requirements. In: Xiong H, Lee WB, eds. Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management: 5th International Conference, KSEM 2011, Irvine, CA, USA, December 12-14, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Brain Network Linking Alzheimer’s And Schizophrenia Identified. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) [Comments on Amtrak Labor Protection Issues] ( No. B-277814). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Teater MR (2009) Reentry and Reintegration: A Grant Proposal for Formerly Incarcerated Women (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2014) Archie Comic Picks Film and TV Writer for Top Creative Post. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bland and Artemieva, 2003; Lin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bland and Artemieva, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Wachter et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Physiology
AbbreviationConserv. Physiol.
ISSN (online)2051-1434

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