How to format your references using the Conservation Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barron M (2008) Science & music: raising the roof. Nature 453: 859–860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee WL, Grinstein S (2004) Immunology. The tangled webs that neutrophils weave. Science 303: 1477–1478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zimmerman A, Bai L, Ginty DD (2014) The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin. Science 346: 950–954.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mikkelsen TS, Hanna J, Zhang X, Ku M, Wernig M, Schorderet P, Bernstein BE, Jaenisch R, Lander ES, Meissner A (2008) Dissecting direct reprogramming through integrative genomic analysis. Nature 454: 49–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad A (2005) Wireless and Mobile Data Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Märgner V, El Abed H, eds. (2012) Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Ballarini P, Mäkelä J, Ribeiro AS (2012) Expressive Statistical Model Checking of Genetic Networks with Delayed Stochastic Dynamics. In: Gilbert D, Heiner M, eds. Computational Methods in Systems Biology: 10th International Conference, CMSB 2012, London, UK, October 3-5, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) Innovative Shower Reduces Water Usage by 90%, Electricity by 80%. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Burden Sharing: Allied Protection of Ships in the Persian Gulf in 1987 and 1988 ( No. NSIAD-90-282BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S (2009) Virtuoso Piano Transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian Tradition in the Twenty-First Century (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maidenberg M, Rappeport A, Gladstone R (2017) Gulf Airline Seeks Stake, Unsolicited, In American. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barron, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lee and Grinstein, 2004; Barron, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Grinstein, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mikkelsen et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Physiology
AbbreviationConserv. Physiol.
ISSN (online)2051-1434

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