How to format your references using the Conservation Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2001) US structural genomics effort needs physicists for success. Nature 410: 723–724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hiiragi T, Solter D (2004) First cleavage plane of the mouse egg is not predetermined but defined by the topology of the two apposing pronuclei. Nature 430: 360–364.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randow F, MacMicking JD, James LC (2013) Cellular self-defense: how cell-autonomous immunity protects against pathogens. Science 340: 701–706.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
del Hoyo GM, Martín P, Vargas HH, Ruiz S, Arias CF, Ardavín C (2002) Characterization of a common precursor population for dendritic cells. Nature 415: 1043–1047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai CS (2006) Biomacromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ding M, Eliashberg J, Stremersch S, eds. (2014) Innovation and Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Emerging Practices, Research, and Policies. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaki MH, Hasan O, Tahar S, Al-Sammane G (2015) Framework for Formally Verifying Analog and Mixed-Signal Designs. In: Fakhfakh M, Tlelo-Cuautle E, Siarry P, eds. Computational Intelligence in Analog and Mixed-Signal (AMS) and Radio-Frequency (RF) Circuit Design. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 115–145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Physiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) SpaceX Rocket Explosion Mystery Deepens With Sabotage Speculation. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education’s Estimate of Applicants’ State Tax Payments ( No. GAO-05-105). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim CS (2017) Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2004) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Two Killed In Bus Stop Blast. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2001; Hiiragi and Solter, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hiiragi and Solter, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (del Hoyo et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Physiology
AbbreviationConserv. Physiol.
ISSN (online)2051-1434

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