How to format your references using the Conservation Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Conservation Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci AS (2008) 25 years of HIV. Nature 453: 289–290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cox B, Yang Q (2006) In quest of virtual tests for structural composites. Science 314: 1102–1107.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matzke M, Matzke AJ, Kooter JM (2001) RNA: guiding gene silencing. Science 293: 1080–1083.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Jia D, Jurkowska RZ, Zhang X, Jeltsch A, Cheng X (2007) Structure of Dnmt3a bound to Dnmt3L suggests a model for de novo DNA methylation. Nature 449: 248–251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pahl J (2016) Interference Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Agrawal D, Candan KS, Li W-S, eds. (2011) New Frontiers in Information and Software as Services: Service and Application Design Challenges in the Cloud. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Medina A (2016) Spirituality and Publicity in Barcelona, 1929: Performing Citizenship between Tradition and Avant-Garde. In: Cordoba A, García-Donoso D, eds. The Sacred and Modernity in Urban Spain: Beyond the Secular City. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Conservation Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) 10 Maps That Reveal How Major Cities Could Be Underwater By 2100. IFLScience. (last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Research: Information on International Science and Technology Agreements ( No. RCED-99-108). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jozwiak AL (2012) Social Work Internship Stipend Program: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2010) Eugene R. Anderson, 82; He Made Insurers Pay Up. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fauci, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cox and Yang, 2006; Fauci, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cox and Yang, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Jia et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleConservation Physiology
AbbreviationConserv. Physiol.
ISSN (online)2051-1434

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