How to format your references using the Case Reports in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raymond JC. Astronomy. Imaging the Sun’s eruptions in three dimensions. Science. 2004 Jul;305(5680):49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vukusic P, Hooper I. Directionally controlled fluorescence emission in butterflies. Science. 2005 Nov;310(5751):1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell E, Rowen L, Hood L. Publication rights for sequence data producers. Science. 2000 Dec;290(5497):1696b–8b.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jonietz F, Mühlbauer S, Pfleiderer C, Neubauer A, Münzer W, Bauer A, et al. Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science. 2010 Dec;330(6011):1648–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson DA. Interpreting Land Records. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Thalheim B, Schewe K-D, Prinz A, Buchberger B, editors. Correct Software in Web Applications and Web Services. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Goto K. Parameters for detection of Alicyclobacillus and test methods. In: Yokota A, Fujii T, Goto K, editors. Alicyclobacillus: Thermophilic Acidophilic Bacilli. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2007; pp 49–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew D. Awesome Timelapse Shows You The Life Cycle Of A Butterfly [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Non-Federal Computer Acquisition Practices Provide Useful Information for Streamlining Federal Methods. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gerhart T. Convex optimization techniques and their application in hyperspectral video processing. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Green LV. Beds of State. New York Times. 2006 Dec;1413.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Oncology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1662-6575

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