How to format your references using the Case Reports in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morell V. When the bat sings. Science. 2014 Jun;344(6190):1334–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kriwacki RW, Yoon M-K. Cell biology. Fishing in the nuclear pore. Science. 2011 Jul;333(6038):44–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vielle-Calzada JP, Baskar R, Grossniklaus U. Delayed activation of the paternal genome during seed development. Nature. 2000 Mar;404(6773):91–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Albertini AAV, Wernimont AK, Muziol T, Ravelli RBG, Clapier CR, Schoehn G, et al. Crystal structure of the rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. Science. 2006 Jul;313(5785):360–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith JT. Methods of Geometry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
Bardakcioglu O, editor. Advanced Techniques in Minimally Invasive and Robotic Colorectal Surgery. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Czinglar C, Katicic A, Kčhler K, Schaner-Wolles C. Strategies in the L1-acquisition of predication: The copula construction in German and Croatian. In: Gagarina N, Gulzow I, editors. The Acquisition of Verbs and their Grammar: The Effect of Particular Languages. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006; pp 71–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. NY Court Will Decide If Chimps Qualify For Legal Personhood [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Oct


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standard, Model Year 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee JY. Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Helping Stamp Collectors and the Postally Confused. New York Times. 2000 Dec;148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Oncology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1662-6575

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