How to format your references using the Case Reports in Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Reports in Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Long MD: GEOPHYSICS. How mountains get made. Science 2015;349:687–688.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aaronson DS, Horvath CM: A road map for those who don’t know JAK-STAT. Science 2002;296:1653–1655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burlaga LF, Ness NF, Stone EC: Magnetic field observations as Voyager 1 entered the heliosheath depletion region. Science 2013;341:147–150.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kolenderski P, Scarcella C, Johnsen KD, Hamel DR, Holloway C, Shalm LK, et al.: Time-resolved double-slit interference pattern measurement with entangled photons. Sci Rep 2014;4:4685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lahdenmäki T, Leach M: Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Tost GO, Vasilieva O (eds): Analysis, Modelling, Optimization, and Numerical Techniques: ICAMI, San Andres Island, Colombia, November 2013. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Stackowiak R, Licht A, Mantha V, Nagode L: Business Information Mapping for Big Data and Internet of Things; in Licht A, Mantha V, Nagode L (eds): Big Data and the Internet of Things: Enterprise Information Architecture for a New Age. Berkeley, CA, Apress, 2015, pp 79–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Reports in Oncology.

Blog post
Hamilton K: How A Single Word Sparked A Four-Year Saga Of Climate Fact-Checking And Blog Backlash. IFLScience 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Cassini Mission: Estimated Launch Costs for NASA’s Mission to Saturn. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bristow LW: There is an old woman: The final stage of individuation 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K: Refusing to Let the Seizures Defeat Him. New York Times 2017;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Reports in Oncology
AbbreviationCase Rep. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1662-6575

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