How to format your references using the Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacDonald, H. R. (2002). Immunology. T before NK. Science 296, 481–482.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jesson, L. K., and Barrett, S. C. H. (2002). Solving the puzzle of mirror-image flowers. Nature 417, 707.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy, I., Peters, S. E., and Fischer, W. W. (2012). Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle. Science 337, 331–334.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jørgensen, R., Merrill, A. R., Yates, S. P., Marquez, V. E., Schwan, A. L., Boesen, T., et al. (2005). Exotoxin A-eEF2 complex structure indicates ADP ribosylation by ribosome mimicry. Nature 436, 979–984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akers, R. M. (2016). Lactation and the Mammary Gland. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company.
An edited book
Schädel, M., and Shaughnessy, D. eds. (2014). The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements. 2nd ed. 2014. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rao, V. V. (2016). “Knobology,” in Practical Point-of-Care Medical Ultrasound, eds. J. M. Daniels and R. A. Hoppmann (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 71–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Graphene Could Double Electricity Generated From Solar. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Federal Research: Evaluation of Small Business Innovation Research Can Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh, H.-C. (2010). Self-access center and autonomous learning: EFL college students’ motivations, activities and perceptions of learning effectiveness.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017). Tax Reform for the Wealthy: Lower Rates but Lose Breaks. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacDonald, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jesson and Barrett, 2002; MacDonald, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jesson and Barrett, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Jørgensen et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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