How to format your references using the Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cooper, A. I. (2015). Materials chemistry: cooperative carbon capture. Nature 519, 294–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Muijres, F. T., and Dickinson, M. H. (2014). Bird flight: Fly with a little flap from your friends. Nature 505, 295–296.
A journal article with 3 authors
King, N., Hittinger, C. T., and Carroll, S. B. (2003). Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science 301, 361–363.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu, J., Taylor, D. W., Krementsova, E. B., Trybus, K. M., and Taylor, K. A. (2006). Three-dimensional structure of the myosin V inhibited state by cryoelectron tomography. Nature 442, 208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dewulf, G., Blanken, A., and Bult-Spiering, M. (2012). Strategic Issues in Public-Private Partnerships. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Laghi, A. (2009). Protocolli di studio in TC spirale multistrato: Vol. 2 • Vascolare. , ed. R. Ferrari Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McKendry, C. (2013). “Environmental Discourse and Economic Growth in the Greening of Postindustrial Cities,” in The Economy of Green Cities: A World Compendium on the Green Urban Economy Local Sustainability., eds. R. Simpson and M. Zimmermann (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 23–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Origin Of Modern Lions Discovered. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Emergency Communications: Survey of Selected Federal Agencies’ Use and Procurement of Land Mobile Radio Equipment (GAO-17-13SP, October 5, 2016), an E-supplement to GAO-17-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le, C. T. (2013). Academic performance of college students as related to depression from stress.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J., Mueller, B., and Rojas, R. (2015). Witness Says Clash Over Witchcraft Preceded a Teenager’s Fatal Beating. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cooper, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Muijres and Dickinson, 2014; Cooper, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Muijres and Dickinson, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Alloimmunity and Transplantation
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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