How to format your references using the Annals of Diagnostic Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nisbet E. Earth monitoring: Cinderella science. Nature 2007;450:789–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dorin JR, Jackson IJ. Genetics. Beta-defensin repertoire expands. Science 2007;318:1395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oxborrow M, Breeze JD, Alford NM. Room-temperature solid-state maser. Nature 2012;488:353–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Houze RA Jr, Chen SS, Smull BF, Lee W-C, Bell MM. Hurricane intensity and eyewall replacement. Science 2007;315:1235–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown C. Mastering Elliott Wave Principle. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Steinrück H, editor. Asymptotic Methods in Fluid Mechanics: Survey and Recent Advances. vol. 523. Vienna: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordenstreng K. Embroiled in Cold War Politics: IOJ and IFJ (1946–). In: Björk UJ, Beyersdorf F, Høyer S, Lauk E, editors. A History of the International Movement of Journalists: Professionalism Versus Politics, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 125–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Diagnostic Pathology.

Blog post
Davis J. Can Handshake Strength Really Predict Your Mortality Risk? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Developing a Domestic Common Carrier Telecommunications Policy: What Are the Issues? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khalili A. Spectrally formulated user-defined element in Abaqus for wave motion analysis and health monitoring of composite structures. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Erlanger S. Trump Condemns ‘Deeply Troubling’ Leaks on Attack After Complaints in Britain. New York Times 2017:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Diagnostic Pathology
AbbreviationAnn. Diagn. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1092-9134
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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