How to format your references using the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sagan, S. D., 2012, Policy: a call for global nuclear disarmament, Nature, 487, no. 7405, 30–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hedstrom, L., and P. A. Frey, 2000, Robert H. Abeles (1926-2000), Nature, 407, no. 6806, 854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, H.-J., W.-Z. Li, and X.-K. Yang, 2014, Assortative mating between two sympatric closely-related specialists: inferred from molecular phylogenetic analysis and behavioral data, Sci. Rep., 4, 5436.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tezcan, F. A., J. T. Kaiser, D. Mustafi, M. Y. Walton, J. B. Howard, and D. C. Rees, 2005, Nitrogenase complexes: multiple docking sites for a nucleotide switch protein, Science, 309, no. 5739, 1377–1380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I., 2005, Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and Microsoft Office Excel ®, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Schippers, A., F. Glombitza, and W. Sand (eds.), 2014, Geobiotechnology I: Metal-related Issues, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson, R. G., 2016, There and Back Again – Andrew Booth, a British Computer Pioneer, and his Interactions with US and Other Contemporaries, in International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers A. Tatnall, and C. Leslie (Editors), Springer International Publishing, Cham, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 58–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017, Asia’s Wildlife-Snaring Crisis Documented In Graphic Photographs, IFLScience: <> (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014, Broadcast Television and Radio: Disclosure Requirements for Broadcasted Content, GAO-14-738, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ge, Z., 2009, Link performance analysis of disaster monitoring system, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G., 2009, Sheldon Dorf, 76, Founder of Comic-Con, B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sagan, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hedstrom and Frey, 2000; Sagan, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hedstrom and Frey, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Tezcan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of the Seismological Society of America
ISSN (print)0037-1106
ISSN (online)1943-3573

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