How to format your references using the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padian, K., 2015, Palaeontology: Dinosaur up in the air, Nature, 521, no. 7550, 40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arinaminpathy, N., and D. Dowdy, 2015, Understanding the incremental value of novel diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, Nature, 528, no. 7580, S60-7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi, M. K., K. C. Sahu, and R. Govindarajan, 2014, Why a falling drop does not in general behave like a rising bubble, Sci. Rep., 4, 4771.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Feng, W., C. Qin, Y. Shen, Y. Li, W. Luo, H. An, and Y. Feng, 2014, A layer-nanostructured assembly of PbS quantum dot/multiwalled carbon nanotube for a high-performance photoswitch, Sci. Rep., 4, 3777.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin, D. A., 2006, Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Barrett, L. W., 2013, Untranslated Gene Regions and Other Non-coding Elements: Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression, Springer, Basel, SpringerBriefs in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
A chapter in an edited book
Leikin, M., 2016, What Do We Learn from Neurolinguistics?, in The Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language V. Ginsburgh, and S. Weber (Editors), Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 121–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, ESO’s MUSE Gets Incredible 3D Look at Deep Universe, IFLScience: <> (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987, Satellite Acquisition: Global Positioning System Acquisition Changes After Challenger’s Accident, NSIAD-87-209BR, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey, S. L., 2012, From “The Man With the Hoe” to “Tobacco Road”: Class, Poverty and Religion and the Southern Tenant Farmers’ Union, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2009, Every Justice Creates a New Court, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Padian, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Arinaminpathy and Dowdy, 2015; Padian, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arinaminpathy and Dowdy, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of the Seismological Society of America
ISSN (print)0037-1106
ISSN (online)1943-3573

Other styles