How to format your references using the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (BSSA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoeijmakers, J. H., 2001, Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer, Nature, 411, no. 6835, 366–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yusufzai, T., and J. T. Kadonaga, 2008, HARP is an ATP-driven annealing helicase, Science, 322, no. 5902, 748–750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Girvetz, E. H., J. A. G. Jaeger, and J. H. Thorne, 2007, Comment on “Roadless space of the conterminous United States,” Science, 318, no. 5854, 1240; author reply 1240.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, K. J., J. R. Arron, K. Stankunas, G. R. Crabtree, and M. T. Longaker, 2007, Chemical rescue of cleft palate and midline defects in conditional GSK-3beta mice, Nature, 446, no. 7131, 79–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ziegler, M., 2012, Geotechnische Nachweise nach EC 7 und DIN 1054, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Bikakis, A., P. Fodor, and D. Roman (eds.), 2014, Rules on the Web. From Theory to Applications: 8th International Symposium, RuleML 2014, Co-located with the 21st European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI 2014, Prague, Czech Republic, August 18-20, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaman, R., W. W. Edmonson, and M. K. Jha, 2016, Designing a Remote In Situ Soil Moisture Sensor Network for Small Satellite Data Retrieval, in Proceedings of the 2013 National Conference on Advances in Environmental Science and Technology G. A. Uzochukwu, K. Schimmel, V. Kabadi, S.-Y. Chang, T. Pinder, and S. A. Ibrahim (Editors), Springer International Publishing, Cham, 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2016, For Fish, Warmer Waters Are Okay, But Not Extreme Heat, IFLScience: <; (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000, SBA Loan Monitoring System: Substantial Progress Yet Key Risks and Challenges Remain, T-AIMD-00-113, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sheldon, A., 2010, The impact of power restoration and narcissism on aggression, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017, Saudi Says Arrests Target Dissidents Aided Abroad, A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoeijmakers, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hoeijmakers, 2001; Yusufzai and Kadonaga, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yusufzai and Kadonaga, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of the Seismological Society of America
ISSN (print)0037-1106
ISSN (online)1943-3573

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