How to format your references using the Bulletin of Mathematical Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D (2003) Ministers back gene-crop advisers. Nature 421:775
A journal article with 2 authors
Chu S, Majumdar A (2012) Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. Nature 488:294–303
A journal article with 3 authors
Vaccari NE, Edgecombe GD, Escudero C (2004) Cambrian origins and affinities of an enigmatic fossil group of arthropods. Nature 430:554–557
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Babazadeh R, Furukawa T, Hohmann S, Furukawa K (2014) Rewiring yeast osmostress signalling through the MAPK network reveals essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 in osmoadaptation. Sci Rep 4:4697

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva FSC, Agustí-Cullell J (2005) Knowledge Coordination. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kurosu M (ed) (2016) Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Platforms and Techniques: 18th International Conference, HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016. Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Biswas P, Langdon P (2013) Inclusive User Modeling and Simulation. In: Biswas P, Duarte C, Langdon P, et al. (eds) A Multimodal End-2-End Approach to Accessible Computing. Springer, London, pp 71–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of Mathematical Biology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Solar Plant Achieves Supercritical Steam. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) VA Information Technology: Progress Made, but Continued Management Attention Is Key to Achieving Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma B (2012) Improving the performance of hyperspectral target detection. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shoumali K, Hubbard B (2017) U.S. Strike on Syria Fuels Uncertainty on the Ground. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Butler 2003; Chu and Majumdar 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chu and Majumdar 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Babazadeh et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of Mathematical Biology
AbbreviationBull. Math. Biol.
ISSN (print)0092-8240
ISSN (online)1522-9602
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences
General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Computational Theory and Mathematics
General Environmental Science
General Mathematics
General Neuroscience

Other styles