How to format your references using the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow N (2009) Transcriptomics: The digital generation. Nature 458:239–242
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan PM, Harris MT (2004) Microbialite resurgence after the Late Ordovician extinction. Nature 430:75–78
A journal article with 3 authors
Harper SM, Neil LC, Gardner KH (2003) Structural basis of a phototropin light switch. Science 301:1541–1544
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakano R, Takanashi T, Surlykke A, et al (2013) Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths. Sci Rep 3:2003

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quesnel F (2014) Scheduling of Large-Scale Virtualized Infrastructures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Neyret P, Demey G (eds) (2014) Surgery of the Knee. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Deeg K-H (2015) Doppler Sonography of the Abdominal Vessels. In: Rupprecht T, Hofbeck M (eds) Doppler Sonography in Infancy and Childhood. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 273–309

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Oldest Known Stone Tools Discovered In Kenya. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Stafford Student Loans: Lower Subsidy Payments Could Achieve Savings Without Affecting Access. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna CA (2012) The structure and function of subalpine ecosystems in the face of climate change. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slater K (2010) Quotation of the Day. New York Times A3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Sheehan and Harris 2004; Blow 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sheehan and Harris 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakano et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
AbbreviationBull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0007-4861
ISSN (online)1432-0800
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine

Other styles