How to format your references using the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffman S (2004) Save the children. Nature 430:940–941
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheung AY, Wu H M (2001) Plant biology. Pollen tube guidance--right on target. Science 293:1441–1442
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambarey A, Prashanthi K, Chandra N (2013) Mining large-scale response networks reveals “topmost activities” in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Sci Rep 3:2302
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Saeij JPJ, Coller S, Boyle JP, et al (2007) Toxoplasma co-opts host gene expression by injection of a polymorphic kinase homologue. Nature 445:324–327

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hackshaw A (2010) How to Write a Grant Application. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Larco N (2014) Site Design for Multifamily Housing: Creating Livable, Connected Neighborhoods. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC
A chapter in an edited book
Goedecke M, Welsch J (2016) Administrative Requirements for the Integration of Environmental Concerns and Demands of Climate Change into the Planning Process. In: Katzschner A, Waibel M, Schwede D, et al. (eds) Sustainable Ho Chi Minh City: Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) How Borneo’s Unique Mountain Wildlife Evolved. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. III, No. 2. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan JA (2014) An in-home visitation program for Meals-on-Wheels recipients: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly SR (2012) Oil Under Our Noses. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cheung and Wu H 2001; Hoffman 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheung and Wu H 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Saeij et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
AbbreviationBull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0007-4861
ISSN (online)1432-0800
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine

Other styles