How to format your references using the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wade N (2009) Retrospective. John Maddox (1925-2009). Science 324:1028
A journal article with 2 authors
Martincorena I, Campbell PJ (2015) Somatic mutation in cancer and normal cells. Science 349:1483–1489
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldini G, Cannone F, Chirico G (2005) Pre-unfolding resonant oscillations of single green fluorescent protein molecules. Science 309:1096–1100
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leopold AC, Jaffe MJ, Brokaw CJ, Goebel G (2000) Many modes of movement. Science 288:2131e–2e

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Panek W, Wentworth T (2010) Mastering Microsoft® Windows® 7 Administration. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Terlaky T, Curtis FE (eds) (2012) Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2010 Conference. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Jayyousi O, Bergkamp G (2008) Water Management in the Jordan River Basin: Towards an Ecosystem Approach. In: Varis O, Biswas AK, Tortajada C (eds) Management of Transboundary Rivers and Lakes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 105–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) How Our Brains Got Their Wrinkles. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) GAO Work Related to ESEA of 1965. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kino MY (2015) My Concierge MD, Inc. a business plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Refurbishing a Courthouse, If Not Its Reputation. New York Times 144

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wade 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Wade 2009; Martincorena and Campbell 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martincorena and Campbell 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Leopold et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
AbbreviationBull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0007-4861
ISSN (online)1432-0800
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine

Other styles