How to format your references using the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow RM (2010) Retrospective. Paul A. Samuelson (1915-2009). Science 327:282
A journal article with 2 authors
Lubchenco J, Sutley N (2010) Science policy. Proposed U.S. policy for ocean, coast, and Great Lakes stewardship. Science 328:1485–1486
A journal article with 3 authors
Mei L, Chen Y, Ma J (2014) Gas sensing of SnO2 nanocrystals revisited: developing ultra-sensitive sensors for detecting the H2S leakage of biogas. Sci Rep 4:6028
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, et al (2006) Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. Science 313:1792–1795

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pijaudier-Cabot G, La Borderie C, Reess T, et al (2016) Electrohydraulic Fracturing of Rocks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Tymieniecka AT (ed) (2012) Art, Literature, and Passions of the Skies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Amir A, Aumann Y, Indyk P, et al (2007) Efficient Computations of ℓ1 and ℓ ∞ Rearrangement Distances. In: Ziviani N, Baeza-Yates R (eds) String Processing and Information Retrieval: 14th International Symposium, SPIRE 2007 Santiago, Chile, October 29-31, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) The Science Behind Why This Photograph Looks Fake. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Transportation Infrastructure: Department of Transportation Highway and Mass Transit Program Reauthorization Proposals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilday D (2014) Soulmaking within the destructive side of God seeing through monotheism’s holy warrior 9/11 to prehistory. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2006) Seen the Airline’s Movie? Bring Your Own. New York Times 56

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solow 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Solow 2010; Lubchenco and Sutley 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lubchenco and Sutley 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Fukata et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
AbbreviationBull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0007-4861
ISSN (online)1432-0800
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
General Medicine

Other styles