How to format your references using the Buildings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Buildings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hand, E. Cash Crisis Could Ground NASA Rocket. Nature 2009, 461, 153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bishopp, A.; Bennett, M.J. Plant Biology: Seeing the Wood and the Trees. Nature 2015, 517, 558–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rey, P.F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. Spreading Continents Kick-Started Plate Tectonics. Nature 2014, 513, 405–408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Orieux, A.; Boutari, J.; Barbieri, M.; Paternostro, M.; Mataloni, P. Experimental Linear-Optics Simulation of Multipartite Non-Locality in the Ground State of a Quantum Ising Ring. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Metzger, R.M. The Physical Chemist’s Toolbox; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118195598.
An edited book
Multi-Objective Memetic Algorithms; Goh, C.-K., Ong, Y.-S., Tan, K.C., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 171; ISBN 9783540880509.
A chapter in an edited book
Milone, E.F.; Wilson, W.J.F. Comets and Meteors. In Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System; Wilson, W.J.F., Ed.; Astronomy and Astrophysics Library; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 597–646 ISBN 9781461490890.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Buildings.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. This Ridiculously Accurate Clock Could Fit Inside Your Smartphone Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Korean Version); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horta, G. The Potential of the Eurozone Crisis to Mobilize Extreme Right Support in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. Cheers on a Soccer Field, Far From Las Vegas. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBuildings
ISSN (online)2075-5309

Other styles