How to format your references using the Archives of Osteoporosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Osteoporosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Grayson M (2012) Psoriasis. Nature 492:S49
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Geisler JH, Theodor JM (2009) Hippopotamus and whale phylogeny. Nature 458:E1-4; discussion E5
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Efferson C, Lalive R, Fehr E (2008) The coevolution of cultural groups and ingroup favoritism. Science 321:1844–1849
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Segrè PN, Liu F, Umbanhowar P, Weitz DA (2001) An effective gravitational temperature for sedimentation. Nature 409:594–597

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Storey IC, Allan A (2008) A Guide to Ancient Greek Drama. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Picot A (2008) Information, Organization and Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Peer S, Gruber H (2008) Traumatic Nerve Lesions. In: Peer S, Bodner G (eds) High-Resolution Sonography of the Peripheral Nervous System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 123–151

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Osteoporosis.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A (2016) Millions Of Black Holes Might Be Hiding In The Milky Way. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/millions-of-black-holes-might-be-hiding-in-the-milky-way/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1978) Status of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Patel VM (2010) Sparse and redundant representations for inverse problems and recognition. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J (2016) Cespedes Wanted to Stay. Mets Wanted Him to Stay. Done Deal. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Osteoporosis
AbbreviationArch. Osteoporos.
ISSN (print)1862-3522
ISSN (online)1862-3514
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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