How to format your references using the Archives of Osteoporosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Archives of Osteoporosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl R (2001) Limited opportunity. Nature 414:8
A journal article with 2 authors
Patel MR, Shen K (2009) RSY-1 is a local inhibitor of presynaptic assembly in C. elegans. Science 323:1500–1503
A journal article with 3 authors
Alford RA, Bradfield KS, Richards SJ (2007) Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447:E3-4; discussion E5-6
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Limelette P, Georges A, Jérome D, et al (2003) Universality and critical behavior at the Mott transition. Science 302:89–92

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox C (2012) An Introduction to LTE. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hohenfellner R (2005) Manual Endourology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Harriss-White B (2016) ‘Local Capitalism’ and the Development of the Rice Economy, 1973–2010. In: Harriss-White B (ed) Middle India and Urban-Rural Development: Four Decades of Change. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 97–130

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Archives of Osteoporosis.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Watch Two Sarcastic Fringeheads Fight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope: Knowledge-Based Acquisition Approach Key to Addressing Program Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin Y-S (2009) Virtuoso piano transcriptions of Stephen Hough and Marc-André Hamelin: Lisztian tradition in the twenty-first century. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2016) Short-Term Cease-Fire in Yemen Appears Likely. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArchives of Osteoporosis
AbbreviationArch. Osteoporos.
ISSN (print)1862-3522
ISSN (online)1862-3514
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles