How to format your references using the British Journal of Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeilinger A. QUANTUM COMPUTING: Quantum Entangled Bits Step Closer to IT. Science 2000;289:405–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Araújo MB, Rahbek C. Ecology. How does climate change affect biodiversity? Science 2006;313:1396–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruthazer ES, Akerman CJ, Cline HT. Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo. Science 2003;301:66–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen C-L, Qi J, Tao J, et al. Tuning calcite morphology and growth acceleration by a rational design of highly stable protein-mimetics. Sci Rep 2014;4:6266.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zonnenshain A, Stauber S. Managing and Engineering Complex Technological Systems. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc 2015.
An edited book
Hesse M. Pollen Terminology: An illustrated handbook. Vienna: : Springer 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Keck ME, Müller MB. Mutagenesis and Knockout Models: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System. In: Holsboer F, Ströhle A, eds. Anxiety and Anxiolytic Drugs. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2005. 113–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Ophthalmology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Is Going To Make An Announcement About A Mission To ‘Touch The Sun’. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Force Assessment of the Joint Strike Fighter’s Aerial Refueling Method. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Evans MD. A Correlational Analysis of Teacher Observation Scores and Student Achievement. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J. An Open Wound for Transgender African-Americans: ‘We’re Considered a Joke’. New York Times. 2017;:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
AbbreviationBr. J. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)0007-1161
ISSN (online)1468-2079
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
Sensory Systems

Other styles