How to format your references using the British Journal of Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kupferschmidt K. Global health. Report prescribes strong medicine for WHO. Science 2015; 349: 223–4
A journal article with 2 authors
Zeh JA, Zeh DW. Outbred embryos rescue inbred half-siblings in mixed-paternity broods of live-bearing females. Nature 2006; 439: 201–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström A, Brommer JE, Gustafsson L. Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild. Nature 2006; 441: 84–6
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alard O, Luguet A, Pearson NJ, et al. In situ Os isotopes in abyssal peridotites bridge the isotopic gap between MORBs and their source mantle. Nature 2005; 436: 1005–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chang CM. Service Systems Management and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Rutz D, Janssen R, editors. Socio-Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Podinovski VV. DEA Models with Production Trade-offs and Weight Restrictions. In: Zhu J, editor. Data Envelopment Analysis: A Handbook of Models and Methods Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015. p. 105–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Blog post
Luntz S. Gamers Beat Scientists To Discover Proteins’ Shapes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of the Water Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Apr Report No.: AIMD-99-151.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox CE. Postcolonial play: Encounters with sport and physical culture in contemporary India [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. E.U. Plans Big Increase in Military Spending. New York Times 2016; A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
AbbreviationBr. J. Anaesth.
ISSN (print)0007-0912
ISSN (online)1471-6771
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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