How to format your references using the British Journal of Anaesthesia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for British Journal of Anaesthesia (BJA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers MMM. Microbiology: A division of labour combined. Nature 2015; 528: 487–8
A journal article with 2 authors
Peale SJ, Lee MH. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean satellites. Science 2002; 298: 593–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Rood RT, Bania TM, Balser DS. Cosmology. The saga of 3He. Science 2002; 295: 804–5
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Woodhead JL, Zhao F-Q, Craig R, Egelman EH, Alamo L, Padrón R. Atomic model of a myosin filament in the relaxed state. Nature 2005; 436: 1195–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway J. Becoming a Category of One. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Kalz DE. Thermal Comfort and Energy-Efficient Cooling of Nonresidential Buildings. Pfafferott J, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Surma J. Case Based Reasoning for Supporting Strategy Decision Making in Small and Medium Enterprises. In: Montani S, Jain LC, editors. Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 83–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for British Journal of Anaesthesia.

Blog post
Fang J. X-rays Reveal Text on Scorched Herculaneum Scrolls [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS2001: Improving the Revenue Estimation Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 May Report No.: AIMD-00-147R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson KC. Teacher and parent perceptions of classroom experiences of African American male students in a high school alternative program [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich J. The Way Forward on Health Care. New York Times 2017; A27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
AbbreviationBr. J. Anaesth.
ISSN (print)0007-0912
ISSN (online)1471-6771
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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