How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bianco, P. (2013). Don’t market stem-cell products ahead of proof. Nature, 499(7458), 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toggweiler, J. R., & Russell, J. (2008). Ocean circulation in a warming climate. Nature, 451(7176), 286–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, A., Lauher, J. W., & Goroff, N. S. (2006). Preparation of poly(diiododiacetylene), an ordered conjugated polymer of carbon and iodine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1030–1034.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, J., Liu, Y., Wang, H., Hao, H., Han, Q., Shen, J., … Han, W. (2013). Direct differentiation of hepatic stem-like WB cells into insulin-producing cells using small molecules. Scientific Reports, 3, 1185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Senez, V., Thomy, V., & Dufour, R. (2014). Nanotechnologies for Synthetic Super Non-Wetting Surfaces. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kao, R. (2011). Beginning BlackBerry 7 Development. (D. Sarigumba, A. Rizk, & K. Michaluk, Eds.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Bingham, G. E., & Okagaki, L. (2012). Ethnicity and Student Engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp. 65–95). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2017, March 15). Documentary Reveals 90% of Minke Whales Hunted By Norway Are Female And Pregnant. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Head Start: Undercover Testing Finds Fraud and Abuse at Selected Head Start Centers (No. GAO-10-1049). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burnley, T. (2012). Psychotherapist as Modern-Day Shaman (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll, S. (2017, March 10). Size Matters. New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wightman, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gingerich, 2010; Zastrow, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toggweiler & Russell, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Sun, Lauher, & Goroff, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rasmussen et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles