How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, E. (2014). Therapeutics: Negative feedback. Nature, 508(7494), S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, K., & Mittleman, D. M. (2004). Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding. Nature, 432(7015), 376–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branch, T. A., Hively, D. J., & Hilborn, R. (2013). Is the ocean food provision index biased? Nature, 495(7442), E5-6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Langowski, J. L., Zhang, X., Wu, L., Mattson, J. D., Chen, T., Smith, K., Basham, B., McClanahan, T., Kastelein, R. A., & Oft, M. (2006). IL-23 promotes tumour incidence and growth. Nature, 442(7101), 461–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kelly, V. A. (2015). ADDICTION in the Family: What Every Counselor Needs to Know. American Counseling Association.
An edited book
Higgs, J., Sheehan, D., Currens, J. B., Letts, W., & Jensen, G. M. (Eds.). (2013). Realising Exemplary Practice-Based Education (Vol. 7). SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Özkaya, N., Nordin, M., Goldsheyder, D., & Leger, D. (2012). Statics: Systems in Equilibrium. In M. Nordin, D. Goldsheyder, & D. Leger (Eds.), Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation (pp. 35–59). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, March 14). Ancient Human Skull May Help Explain The Origin Of Neanderthals. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1970). Review of Training Grant Awarded to the University of California at Los Angeles (B-164031(2)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu, H. (2017). Three Papers on the Sociology of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Park, L. S. (2017, March 10). Origin of a Species. New York Times, BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dolgin, 2014; Wang & Mittleman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Mittleman, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Branch et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Langowski et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles