How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ffrench-Constant, R. H. (2014). Genomics: Of monarchs and migration. Nature, 514(7522), 314–315.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, A. L., & Wand, A. J. (2001). Microscopic origins of entropy, heat capacity and the glass transition in proteins. Nature, 411(6836), 501–504.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simpson, A. G. B., MacQuarrie, E. K., & Roger, A. J. (2002). Eukaryotic evolution: early origin of canonical introns. Nature, 419(6904), 270.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tsujimoto, Y., Tassel, C., Hayashi, N., Watanabe, T., Kageyama, H., Yoshimura, K., Takano, M., Ceretti, M., Ritter, C., & Paulus, W. (2007). Infinite-layer iron oxide with a square-planar coordination. Nature, 450(7172), 1062–1065.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (1995). Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huang, J. Z., Cao, L., & Srivastava, J. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 15th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2011, Shenzhen, China, May 24-27, 2011, Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 6634). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Duque, A., Campos, C., Jiménez-Ruiz, E., & Chalmeta, R. (2009). An Ontological Solution to Support Interoperability in the Textile Industry. In R. Poler, M. van Sinderen, & R. Sanchis (Eds.), Enterprise Interoperability: Second IFIP WG 5.8 International Workshop, IWEI 2009, Valencia, Spain, October 13-14, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 38–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 31). Genome Editing Poses Ethical Problems That We Cannot Ignore. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information Technology: Early Releases of Customs Trade System Operating, but Pattern of Cost and Schedule Problems Needs to Be Addressed (GAO-04-719). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi, F. (2014). Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, June 26). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Rebels’ Offer To Talk Brushed Aside. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ffrench-Constant, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ffrench-Constant, 2014; Lee & Wand, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Wand, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Simpson et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tsujimoto et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles