How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sirocko, F. (2003). Paleoclimate. What drove past teleconnections? Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5638), 1336–1337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barker, S., & Elderfield, H. (2002). Foraminiferal calcification response to glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 833–836.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, A., Kemp, A. E. S., & Pike, J. (2009). Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic. Nature, 460(7252), 254–258.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Slomski, B., Landolt, G., Bihlmayer, G., Osterwalder, J., & Dil, J. H. (2013). Tuning of the Rashba effect in Pb quantum well states via a variable Schottky barrier. Scientific Reports, 3, 1963.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, E. (2012). Atlas of Developmental Field Anomalies of the Human Skeleton. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fomin, F. V. (Ed.). (2006). Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 32nd International Workshop, WG 2006, Bergen, Norway, June 22-24, 2006 Revised Papers (Vol. 4271). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Carr, D. (2010). Personal and Professional Values in Teaching. In T. Lovat, R. Toomey, & N. Clement (Eds.), International Research Handbook on Values Education and Student Wellbeing (pp. 63–74). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 11). Parasitoid Wasp Gives Ladybirds A Virus That Turns Them Into A Zombie Bodyguard. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Public Transportation: Survey of Project Sponsors on Their Transit Projects and Experience with the Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts and Small Starts Programs (GAO-07-927SP, July 2007), an E-supplement to GAO-07-917 (GAO-07-927SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kasun, K. K. (2010). Economic effectiveness of physician organizational models in a California integrated healthcare system [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M. S., Haberman, M., & Apuzzo, M. (2017, July 21). Wary of Mueller, Trump’s Team Is Investigating His Investigators. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sirocko, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Barker & Elderfield, 2002; Sirocko, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barker & Elderfield, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Davies et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Slomski et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles