How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M. (2015). Assessing science. Nature, 520(7549), S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavallo, V., & Grubbs, R. H. (2009). Carbenes as catalysts for transformations of organometallic iron complexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5952), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cortright, R. D., Davda, R. R., & Dumesic, J. A. (2002). Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water. Nature, 418(6901), 964–967.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lu, J.-R., Bassel-Duby, R., Hawkins, A., Chang, P., Valdez, R., Wu, H., Gan, L., Shelton, J. M., Richardson, J. A., & Olson, E. N. (2002). Control of facial muscle development by MyoR and capsulin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5602), 2378–2381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Putt, A. (2006). Putt’s Law & the Successful Technocrat. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Amara, A., & Rozeau, O. (Eds.). (2009). Planar Double-Gate Transistor: From Technology to Circuit. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Neves, M. F., Trombin, V. G., Lopes, F. F., Kalaki, R., & Milan, P. (2012). Citrus exports. In V. G. Trombin, F. F. Lopes, R. Kalaki, & P. Milan (Eds.), The orange juice business: A Brazilian perspective (pp. 25–26). Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, June 23). Crows Rival Most Mammals with Their Cognitive Ability. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Charter Schools: Issues Affecting Access to Federal Funds (T-HEHS-97-216). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horaist, D. W. (2015). Estimating Seed Bank Responses to Changing Environmental Conditions in the Louisiana Coastal Zone [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M. (2017, July 7). Defining Success. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson, 2015; Lavallo & Grubbs, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavallo & Grubbs, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Cortright et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles