How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Journal of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Journal of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sincell, M. (2000). NanoManipulator Lets Chemists Go Mano a Mano With Molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robeva, R., & Laubenbacher, R. (2009). Mathematical biology education: beyond calculus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 542–543.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rustagi, D., Engel, S., & Kosfeld, M. (2010). Conditional cooperation and costly monitoring explain success in forest commons management. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6006), 961–965.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schmidt, M. W. I., Torn, M. S., Abiven, S., Dittmar, T., Guggenberger, G., Janssens, I. A., … Trumbore, S. E. (2011). Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property. Nature, 478(7367), 49–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwartz, R. (2012). Rethinking Pragmatism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Preedy, V. R. (Ed.). (2012). Handbook of diet, nutrition and the skin (Vol. 2). Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Fredriksen, H. H. (2016). EEA Main Agreement and Secondary EU Law Incorporated into the Annexes and Protocols. In C. Baudenbacher (Ed.), The Handbook of EEA Law (pp. 95–110). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Journal of Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 13). New Theory Could Explain Why Hot Water Freezes Faster Than Cold Water. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Small Business Administration: Better Planning and Controls Needed for Information Systems (No. AIMD-97-94). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bai, H. (2008). High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rohan, T. (2014, February 2). Before Hitting and Fielding, Young Mets Seek Edge by Running and Stretching. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sincell, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Robeva & Laubenbacher, 2009; Sincell, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robeva & Laubenbacher, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Rustagi, Engel, & Kosfeld, 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schmidt et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Journal of Education
ISSN (print)0218-8791
ISSN (online)1742-6855

Other styles