How to format your references using the 3 Biotech citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for 3 Biotech. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami GF (2009) Astronomy. Celebrating the 400th anniversary of telescope astronomy. Science 324:1149–1150
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutchinson JR, Garcia M (2002) Tyrannosaurus was not a fast runner. Nature 415:1018–1021
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteus C, Freitas C, Grutzendler J (2014) Perturbed neural activity disrupts cerebral angiogenesis during a postnatal critical period. Nature 505:407–411
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lin S-K, Tsai M-Y, Tsai P-C, Hsu B-H (2014) Formation of alternating interfacial layers in Au-12Ge/Ni joints. Sci Rep 4:4557

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Staudt G (2001) Experimentalphysik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Noam EM, Pupillo LM, Kranz JJ (eds) (2013) Broadband Networks, Smart Grids and Climate Change. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Pardalopoulos SI, Pantazopoulou SJ, Kontari MT (2015) Rapid Seismic Assessment Procedure of Masonry Buildings with Historic Value. In: Psycharis IN, Pantazopoulou SJ, Papadrakakis M (eds) Seismic Assessment, Behavior and Retrofit of Heritage Buildings and Monuments. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 113–137

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for 3 Biotech.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) This Super-Earth Atmosphere Might Have Massive Implications For The Search For Life. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 12. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen C (2010) A psychoeducational support group for Vietnamese American family caregivers of stroke survivors: Grant writing thesis proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haskell DG (2017) Springing Too Far Ahead. New York Times SR5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hutchinson and Garcia 2002; Bignami 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hutchinson and Garcia 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal title3 Biotech
Abbreviation3 Biotech
ISSN (print)2190-572X
ISSN (online)2190-5738
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles