How to format your references using the Brain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wood J. Obituary: Alastair Cameron (1925-2005). Nature 2005; 438: 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Debenedetti PG, Sarupria S. Chemistry. Hydrate molecular ballet. Science 2009; 326: 1070–1071.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal A, Chhatre A, Hardin R. Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science 2008; 320: 1460–1462.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lücke B, Scherer M, Kruse J, Pezzé L, Deuretzbacher F, Hyllus P, et al. Twin matter waves for interferometry beyond the classical limit. Science 2011; 334: 773–776.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk MK. RF Power Amplifiers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014
An edited book
Advances in Digital Forensics III: IFIP International Conference on Digital Forensics, National Centre for Forensic Science, Orlando, Florida, January 28-January 31, 2007. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2007
A chapter in an edited book
Cornelisse G. Immigration Detention: An Instrument in the Fight Against Illegal Immigration or a Tool for Its Management? In: Guia MJ, Koulish R, Mitsilegas V, editor(s). Immigration Detention, Risk and Human Rights: Studies on Immigration and Crime. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 73–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain.

Blog post
Andrew E. 10 Science Jokes for Nerds [Internet]. IFLScience 2014[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: FAA Preboard Passenger Screening Test Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danna RJ. Learning-Assisted Market-Based Optimization for Truck Task Scheduling. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Remarks Draw Backlash That Unites a Normally Fractious News Media. New York Times 2017: A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wood, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Wood, 2005; Debenedetti and Sarupria, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Debenedetti and Sarupria, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Lücke et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain
ISSN (print)0006-8950
ISSN (online)1460-2156
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles