How to format your references using the Brain and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howell, P. (2011). Listen to the lessons of The King’s Speech. Nature, 470(7332), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kundu, P., & Pettersson, S. (2014). Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria. Nature, 512(7515), 377–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antonovics, J., Hood, M. E., & Baker, C. H. (2006). Molecular virology: was the 1918 flu avian in origin? Nature, 440(7088), E9; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hasegawa, H., Fujimoto, M., Phan, T.-D., Rème, H., Balogh, A., Dunlop, M. W., Hashimoto, C., & Tandokoro, R. (2004). Transport of solar wind into Earth’s magnetosphere through rolled-up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices. Nature, 430(7001), 755–758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H. (2012). Applied Building Physics. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Krawczyk, H. (Ed.). (2014). Public-Key Cryptography – PKC 2014: 17th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 26-28, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8383). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gyurkó, L. G., & Lyons, T. J. (2011). Efficient and Practical Implementations of Cubature on Wiener Space. In D. Crisan (Ed.), Stochastic Analysis 2010 (pp. 73–111). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Language.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 26). The Bionic Man is No Longer Science Fiction. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). New L.A. Federal Courthouse: Evidence Is Insufficient To Suggest That Congress Reconsider Its Approval (GGD-88-43BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Genc, A. (2008). Phase Stability in Metallic Multilayers [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kwai, I. (2017, July 18). Citizenship Costs Senator In Australia Her Position. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Howell, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Howell, 2011; Kundu & Pettersson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kundu & Pettersson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Antonovics et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hasegawa et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Language
AbbreviationBrain Lang.
ISSN (print)0093-934X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

Other styles