How to format your references using the Brain and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brain and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuhn, M. (2015). Cardiology: A big-hearted molecule. Nature, 519(7544), 416–417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medema, J. P., & Vermeulen, L. (2011). Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer. Nature, 474(7351), 318–326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael, H. A., Mulligan, A. E., & Harvey, C. F. (2005). Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean. Nature, 436(7054), 1145–1148.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Molejon, M. I., Ropolo, A., Re, A. L., Boggio, V., & Vaccaro, M. I. (2013). The VMP1-Beclin 1 interaction regulates autophagy induction. Scientific Reports, 3, 1055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaszeta, D. (2012). CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hassmén, P. (2016). Rethinking Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: Past, Present and Future. (R. Keegan & D. Piggott, Eds.). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Petrilli, S., & Ponzio, A. (2015). Language as Primary Modeling and Natural Languages: A Biosemiotic Perspective. In E. Velmezova, K. Kull, & S. J. Cowley (Eds.), Biosemiotic Perspectives on Language and Linguistics (pp. 47–76). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brain and Language.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 7). Brain-Damaged Turtle Takes Trip To Hospital For A CT Scan. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). IRS Website: Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve Interactive Services (No. GAO-13-435). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paulone, S. (2013). Mergers and Acquisitions: Examining Managerial Strategy Connection to Post Transaction Accounting Measures (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, August 2). At School, a ‘March’ Through the Civil Rights Movement in Visual Detail. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuhn, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kuhn, 2015; Medema & Vermeulen, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medema & Vermeulen, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Michael, Mulligan, & Harvey, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Molejon, Ropolo, Re, Boggio, & Vaccaro, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBrain and Language
AbbreviationBrain Lang.
ISSN (print)0093-934X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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