How to format your references using the Journal of Community Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Community Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S. (2003). University challenge Paris. Nature, 422(6932), 644–645.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jernvall, J., & Fortelius, M. (2002). Common mammals drive the evolutionary increase of hypsodonty in the Neogene. Nature, 417(6888), 538–540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, K., Vanner, M. R., & Twamley, J. (2014). An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits. Scientific reports, 4, 5571.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Povich, M. S., Raymond, J. C., Jones, G. H., Uzzo, M., Ko, Y.-K., Feldman, P. D., … Woods, T. N. (2003). Doubly ionized carbon observed in the plasma tail of comet Kudo-Fujikawa. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652), 1949–1952.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holmes, J. D. (2016). Great Myths of Education and Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Klimpel, S., & Mehlhorn, H. (Eds.). (2014). Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths (Vol. 5). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Amadori, D., & Gosse, L. (2015). Entropy Dissipation and Comparison with Lyapunov Estimates. In L. Gosse (Ed.), Error Estimates for Well-Balanced Schemes on Simple Balance Laws: One-Dimensional Position-Dependent Models (pp. 81–90). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Community Health.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, September 9). Beautiful And Terrifying Time-Lapse Shows Antibiotic Resistance In Action. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Broadcast Policies and Practices and the Board for International Broadcasting Oversight of Radio Programming (No. 126571). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jurka, J. (2010). The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger, D. E., & MacFARQUHAR, N. (2017, May 10). Trump’s Meeting With Russian Foreign Minister Comes at Awkward Time. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Community Health
AbbreviationJ. Community Health
ISSN (print)0094-5145
ISSN (online)1573-3610
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

Other styles