How to format your references using the Journal of Community Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Community Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kimble, H. J. (2008). The quantum internet. Nature, 453(7198), 1023–1030.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kashefi, K., & Lovley, D. R. (2003). Extending the upper temperature limit for life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5635), 934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brockmann, D., Hufnagel, L., & Geisel, T. (2006). The scaling laws of human travel. Nature, 439(7075), 462–465.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Todo, Y., Kitazato, H., Hashimoto, J., & Gooday, A. J. (2005). Simple foraminifera flourish at the ocean’s deepest point. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5710), 689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lad, B. K., Shrivastava, D., & Kulkarni, M. S. (2016). Machine Tool Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ahmad, S. I. (2006). Molecular Mechanisms of Fanconi Anemia. (S. H. Kirk, Ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Fix, L., Grumberg, O., Heyman, A., Heyman, T., & Schuster, A. (2005). Verifying Very Large Industrial Circuits Using 100 Processes and Beyond. In D. A. Peled & Y.-K. Tsay (Eds.), Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis: Third International Symposium, ATVA 2005, Taipei, Taiwan, October 4-7, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 11–25). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Community Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 17). These Cute Slugs Are The Bunnies Of The Sea. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Higher Education: Better Management of Federal Grant and Loan Forgiveness Programs for Teachers Needed to Improve Participant Outcomes (No. GAO-15-314). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Castan, J. U. (2010). Congruence x employment tenure: A study with transitioning youth with disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, October 4). Europe Moves to Collect Taxes From Tech Giants. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Community Health
AbbreviationJ. Community Health
ISSN (print)0094-5145
ISSN (online)1573-3610
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)

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