How to format your references using the Urological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urological Science (UROLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmollinger J. Equal opportunities. Nature 2002;417(6891):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lerman J., Palsson BO. Microbiology. Topping off a multiscale balancing act. Science 2010;330(6007):1058–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarlinton RE., Meers J., Young PR. Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 2006;442(7098):79–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alley WM., Healy RW., LaBaugh JW., Reilly TE. Flow and storage in groundwater systems. Science 2002;296(5575):1985–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uriev NB. Technology of Dispersed Systems and Materials, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
Patel B. Endodontic Treatment, Retreatment, and Surgery: Mastering Clinical Practice, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lloyd RV., Scheithauer BW., Horvath E., Kovacs K. Tumors of the Pituitary Gland. In: Khan A, editor. Surgical Pathology of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2009, p. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urological Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Vaccine For ’Mad-Cow’- Like Disease In Deer Shows Promise. IFLScience. Available from: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Full Adoption of Sound Transition Planning Practices by GSA and Selected Agencies Could Improve Planning Efforts, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hansell L. Perceptions of Supervisor Ethical Behavior by Psychology Interns. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times 2010:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrological Science
AbbreviationUrol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1879-5226

Other styles