How to format your references using the Urological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urological Science (UROLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scully T. Tuberculosis. Nature 2013;502(7470):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannisdal B., Peters SE. Phanerozoic Earth system evolution and marine biodiversity. Science 2011;334(6059):1121–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foth C., Tischlinger H., Rauhut OWM. New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature 2014;511(7507):79–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shepherd A., Wingham D., Payne T., Skvarca P. Larsen ice shelf has progressively thinned. Science 2003;302(5646):856–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
Wolff L. Real Photo Postcards: Unbelievable Images from the Collection of Harvey Tulcensky, New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Videira AAP. Poincaré, Indifferent Hypotheses and Metaphysics. In: de Paz M, and DiSalle R, editors. Poincaré, Philosopher of Science: Problems and Perspectives, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 67–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urological Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meet The Wild Animals Who Put Their Partners First (Just Don’t Call It Love). IFLScience. Available from: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Cost Information on the Desegregation of the School Systems in Mobile County and Wilcox County, Alabama, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tourijigian L. Fiscal Changes at Dunbar Elementary. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser B., Protess B., Goldstein M., Rashbaum WK. A U.S. Attorney Who Shunned Politics Meets an End Tinged by Them. New York Times 2017:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrological Science
AbbreviationUrol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1879-5226

Other styles