How to format your references using the Urological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urological Science (UROLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles MT. How metrics could have saved UK car industry. Nature 2000;405(6782):13–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silberzahn R., Uhlmann EL. Crowdsourced research: Many hands make tight work. Nature 2015;526(7572):189–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaffer H., Adjei IM., Labhasetwar V. Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage. Sci Rep 2013;3:3117.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Temirov R., Soubatch S., Luican A., Tautz FS. Free-electron-like dispersion in an organic monolayer film on a metal substrate. Nature 2006;444(7117):350–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mason RP. Trace Metals in Aquatic Systems, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Grollmann P., Rauner F. International Perspectives on Teachers and Lecturers in Technical and Vocational Education, vol. 7, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Busso EP. Multiscale Approaches: From the Nanomechanics to the Micromechanics. In: Silberschmidt VV, editor. Computational and Experimental Mechanics of Advanced Materials, Vienna: Springer; 2010, p. 141–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urological Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. How Learning To Read Transforms Your Deep Brain. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Billions Spent Annually for Treatment and Prevention Activities, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang J. Understanding the college experiences of Cambodian American students. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Brooklyn Gets a Superhero (and a Few Villains). New York Times 2016:MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrological Science
AbbreviationUrol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1879-5226

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