How to format your references using the Urological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urological Science (UROLS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abreu A. Harnessing new scientific capacity. Science 2012;336(6087):1397.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski PG., de Vargas C. Genomics and evolution. Shotgun sequencing in the sea: a blast from the past? Science 2004;304(5667):58–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsaesser H., Sauer K., Brooks DG. IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection. Science 2009;324(5934):1569–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Varcoe BT., Brattke S., Weidinger M., Walther H. Preparing pure photon number states of the radiation field. Nature 2000;403(6771):743–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahonen TT. m-Profits, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Fikentscher W. FairEconomy: Crises, Culture, Competition and the Role of Law, vol. 19, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Prashanth LA., Korda N., Munos R. Fast LSTD Using Stochastic Approximation: Finite Time Analysis and Application to Traffic Control. In: Calders T, Esposito F, Hüllermeier E, and Meo R, editors. Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2014, Nancy, France, September 15-19, 2014. Proceedings, Part II, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 66–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urological Science.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Is This Injectable Tanning Drug Safe To Use? IFLScience. Available from: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Earned Value Management Implementation across Major Spaceflight Projects Is Uneven, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhatnagar A. Buckling and weight optimization for non-coupled antisymmetric laminates. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. At 28, Abbott Wins 4th U.S. Title and Has a Teenage Teammate for the Olympics. New York Times 2014:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleUrological Science
AbbreviationUrol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1879-5226

Other styles