How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. D. Ehlers, “Eppendorf 2003 prize-winning essay. Ubiquitin and the deconstruction of synapses,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5646, pp. 800–801, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Roll-Mecak and R. D. Vale, “Structural basis of microtubule severing by the hereditary spastic paraplegia protein spastin,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7176, pp. 363–367, Jan. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. I. Sereno, S. Pitzalis, and A. Martinez, “Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, pp. 1350–1354, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. A. Naumova et al., “Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4884, May 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. F. DeRosa, Foreign Exchange Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
D. Alberts and L. M. Hess, Eds., Fundamentals of Cancer Prevention, 3rd ed. 2014. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Manolopoulos, A. Nanopoulos, A. N. Papadopoulos, and Y. Theodoridis, “Fundamental Query Processing Techniques,” in R-Trees: Theory and Applications, A. Nanopoulos, A. N. Papadopoulos, and Y. Theodoridis, Eds. London: Springer, 2006, pp. 51–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “New Horizons Brought Our Last ‘First Look’ At One Of The Original Nine Solar System Planets,” IFLScience, Jul. 22, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Fiscal Year 2012 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-13-73R, Nov. 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. V. Magnus, “Female Police Officers: The Influence of a Masculine Culture,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, “A Choreographer Vanishes In Murky Russian Mystery,” New York Times, p. E1, Feb. 15, 2005.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.
ISSN (print)1045-9219
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing

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