How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. L. Perry, “BATTERIES. Expanding the chemical space for redox flow batteries,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6255, p. 1452, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Yasunaga and Y. Matsumura, “Role of SLC6A6 in promoting the survival and multidrug resistance of colorectal cancer,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4852, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. L. Mohanan, I. U. Arachchige, and S. L. Brock, “Porous semiconductor chalcogenide aerogels,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5708, pp. 397–400, Jan. 2005.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. P. Cam, K.-I. Noma, H. Ebina, H. L. Levin, and S. I. S. Grewal, “Host genome surveillance for retrotransposons by transposon-derived proteins,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7177, pp. 431–436, Jan. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. B. Dijksterhuis, Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
D. T. L. Shek and P. Chung, Eds., Promoting Service Leadership Qualities in University Students: The Case of Hong Kong, 1st ed. 2015., vol. 6. Singapore: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
O. Scherzer, M. Grasmair, H. Grossauer, M. Haltmeier, and F. Lenzen, “Convex Regularization Methods for Denoising,” in Variational Methods in Imaging, M. Grasmair, H. Grossauer, M. Haltmeier, and F. Lenzen, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2009, pp. 115–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Ketamine: Painkiller, Party Drug – And Possibly Next-Generation Antidepressant,” IFLScience, 17-May-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NSA Methods of Acquiring Automatic Data Processing Equipment,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, LCD-76-123, Jun. 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. M. Reich, “Adapted physical education teachers’ attitudes towards their students with hidden and visible disabilities,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. R. Oestreich, “Finding the Humanity in ‘St. John,’” New York Times, p. C5, 14-Apr-2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.
ISSN (print)1045-9219
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing

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