How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Racaniello, “Virology. An exit strategy for measles virus,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6063, pp. 1650–1651, Dec. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. A. Masiello and P. Louchouarn, “Ecology. Fire in the ocean,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6130, pp. 287–288, Apr. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Convertito, F. Catalli, and A. Emolo, “Combining stress transfer and source directivity: the case of the 2012 Emilia seismic sequence,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 3114, Nov. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. W. Freudiger et al., “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5909, pp. 1857–1861, Dec. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Bamfield, Research and Development in the Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2006.
An edited book
G. Heinemann, Social - Local - Mobile: The Future of Location-based Services. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Arking, “The Genetic Architecture of Longevity,” in Life-Span Extension: Single-Cell Organisms to Man, C. Sell, A. Lorenzini, and H. M. Brown-Borg, Eds. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2009, pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Why Do Some People Have A Tiny Extra Hole In Their Ear?,” IFLScience, Nov. 21, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Education Allowance Grants Made to Trust Territory Government Employees,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 092692, Aug. 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. A. Jackson, “Musculoskeletal Injuries in California Ocean Lifeguards,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, “Glorifying the Chickpea,” New York Times, p. NJ9, Apr. 03, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst.
ISSN (print)1045-9219
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Hardware and Architecture
Signal Processing

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