How to format your references using the Brachytherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brachytherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helliwell JR. Biochemistry. How to solve protein structures with an X-ray laser. Science 2013;339:146–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crompton RH, Pataky TC. Anthropology. Stepping out. Science 2009;323:1174–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hasty J, McMillen D, Collins JJ. Engineered gene circuits. Nature 2002;420:224–230.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu H, Lv M, Deng B, et al. Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations. Sci Rep 2014;4:5920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dal Pont J-P, Azzaro-Pantel C. New Approaches to the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Mahlich JC, Pascha W, editors. Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Das A. Differentiable Manifolds with Connections. In: Das A, editor. Tensors: The Mathematics of Relativity Theory and Continuum Mechanics. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. p. 92–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brachytherapy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Astronomers Use Star Pulsation To Estimate Galaxy Age. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: New Model for Public Schools Provides Opportunities and Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horwitz MH. Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Pathways of the John’s Pass-Blind Pass Dual Inlet System: Pinellas County, Florida. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Film Series. New York Times. August 10, 2017:C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBrachytherapy
ISSN (print)1538-4721
ISSN (online)1873-1449
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles