How to format your references using the Brachytherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brachytherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashwell M. Elsie Widdowson (1906-2000). Nature 2000;406:844.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith AJ, Schwappach B. Cell biology. Think vesicular chloride. Science 2010;328:1364–1365.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li F, Martienssen R, Cande WZ. Coordination of DNA replication and histone modification by the Rik1-Dos2 complex. Nature 2011;475:244–248.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yong S-M, Lim M-L, Low C-M, Wong B-S. Reduced neuronal signaling in the ageing apolipoprotein-E4 targeted replacement female mice. Sci Rep 2014;4:6580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry M. Fixed Income Securities and Derivatives Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Li W, Huhns MN, Tsai W-T, Wu W, editors. Crowdsourcing: Cloud-Based Software Development. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Patil AS, Abraham A. Intelligent and Interactive Web-Based Tutoring System in Engineering Education: Reviews, Perspectives and Development. In: Xhafa F, Caballé S, Abraham A, Daradoumis T, Juan Perez AA, editors. Computational Intelligence for Technology Enhanced Learning. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 79–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brachytherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Machinery In Nature. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Capital: Attracting and Retaining a High-Quality Information Technology Workforce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holbert M. Knowledge is power (KIP): Kinship caregiver support group program curriculum. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Witness Cites Recipe for Toxic Air, and Debt, at Puerto Rico’s Power Company. New York Times. February 16, 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBrachytherapy
ISSN (print)1538-4721
ISSN (online)1873-1449
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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