How to format your references using the Brachytherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brachytherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiersma D. The smallest random laser. Nature 2000;406:132–133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucić V, Baumeister W. Neuroscience. Monte Carlo places strong odds on ectopic release. Science 2005;309:387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amunts A, Drory O, Nelson N. The structure of a plant photosystem I supercomplex at 3.4 A resolution. Nature 2007;447:58–63.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jing H, Zhang G, Meng L, Meng Q, Mo H, Tai Y. Gradually elevated expression of Gankyrin during human hepatocarcinogenesis and its clinicopathological significance. Sci Rep 2014;4:5503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee WF. Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
David E, Gerding E, Sarne D, Shehory O, editors. Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce. Designing Trading Strategies and Mechanisms for Electronic Markets: AAMAS Workshop, AMEC 2009, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 2009, and IJCAI Workshop, TADA 2009, Pasadena, CA, USA, July 13, 2009, Selected and Revised Papers. Vol 59. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Mercier F, Schnack J, Chaumet MSG. Fractones: Home and Conductors of the Neural Stem Cell Niche. In: Seki T, Sawamoto K, Parent JM, Alvarez-Buylla A, editors. Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain I: Neurobiology. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2011. p. 109–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brachytherapy.

Blog post
Davis J. Battle Of The Deep Sea Monsters: Colossal Squid Vs Giant Toothfish. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Competition, Capacity, and Costs in the Fixed Satellite Services Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sachdev NA. An Evaluation of the District of Columbia Summer Youth Employment Program. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Circular Makes the Rounds and Residents Complain. New York Times. May 10, 1998:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBrachytherapy
ISSN (print)1538-4721
ISSN (online)1873-1449
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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