How to format your references using the Brachytherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Brachytherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Harbinger of a Litigious Future? Science 2000;290:1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deuker MM, McMahon M. Cancer biology: Enzyme meets a surprise target. Nature 2014;510:225–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heeney JL, Dalgleish AG, Weiss RA. Origins of HIV and the evolution of resistance to AIDS. Science 2006;313:462–466.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piewngam P, Zheng Y, Nguyen TH, et al. Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference. Nature 2018;562:532–537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe TM, Chubb JE. Liberating Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Krüger R. Brand Growth Barriers: Identify, Understand, and Overcome Them. (Stumpf A, editor). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang Y, Dai Z, Zhang W. Validation of the SPH Models. In: Dai Z, Zhang W, editors. Geo-Disaster Modeling and Analysis: An SPH-Based Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 71–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Brachytherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Highest Carbon Dioxide Levels In 800,000 Years. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perry EM. Live and let live: Negotiating difference in a diverse urban neighborhood. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Living the Bike Life. New York Times. January 20, 2017:MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleBrachytherapy
ISSN (print)1538-4721
ISSN (online)1873-1449
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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