How to format your references using the Biofouling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofouling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pälike H. 2013. Geochemistry. Impact and extinction. Science. 339(6120):655–656.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet EG, Chappellaz J. 2009. Atmospheric science. Shifting gear, quickly. Science. 324(5926):477–478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett RDH, Rogers SM, Schluter D. 2008. Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback. Science. 322(5899):255–257.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Ma D, Zerangue N, Lin YF, Collins A, Yu M, Jan YN, Jan LY. 2001. Role of ER export signals in controlling surface potassium channel numbers. Science. 291(5502):316–319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. 2008. Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Robinett RD III. 2011. Nonlinear Power Flow Control Design: Utilizing Exergy, Entropy, Static and Dynamic Stability, and Lyapunov Analysis. Wilson DG, editor. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berg K, Conejero JM, Hernández J. 2007. Analysis of Crosscutting in Early Software Development Phases Based on Traceability. In: Rashid A, Aksit M, editors. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 73–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofouling.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2015. Man Sings ‘If Only I Had A Brain’ During MRI. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Vehicle Safety: Technologies, Challenges, and Research and Development Expenditures for Advanced Air Bags. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Qian J. 2006. Characterization of Transcription-independent APC Tumor Suppressor Function in Apoptosis [Doctoral dissertation]. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. 2016. A Grievous Homecoming (It’s O.K. to Laugh). New York Times.:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pälike 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Nisbet and Chappellaz 2009; Pälike 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet and Chappellaz 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofouling
ISSN (print)0892-7014
ISSN (online)1029-2454
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles