How to format your references using the Biofouling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofouling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. 2004. Benelux: fertile ground. Nature. 428(6985):874–875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luksza M, Lässig M. 2014. A predictive fitness model for influenza. Nature. 507(7490):57–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen AE, Ginty DD, Fan C-M. 2005. Protein kinase A signalling via CREB controls myogenesis induced by Wnt proteins. Nature. 433(7023):317–322.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Horikawa K, Ishimatsu K, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S, Takeda H. 2006. Noise-resistant and synchronized oscillation of the segmentation clock. Nature. 441(7094):719–723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra S, Goswami S. 2017. Network Routing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Syka J, Merzenich MM, editors. 2005. Plasticity and Signal Representation in the Auditory System. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Seki Y. 2014. Current Indication. In: Choi SH, Kasama K, editors. Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofouling.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. The Biggest Sticking Point In Paris Climate Talks: Money. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Higher Education: Factors Lenders Consider in Making Lending Decisions for Private Education Loans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller MW. 2010. The Mediterranean Ethiopian: Intellectual discourse and the fixity of myth in classical antiquity [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. 2017. One Subway Stop Changes the Rent. New York Times.:RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2004; Luksza and Lässig 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luksza and Lässig 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Horikawa et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofouling
ISSN (print)0892-7014
ISSN (online)1029-2454
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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