How to format your references using the Biofouling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofouling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee PA. 2014. Physics. Seeking out Majorana under the microscope. Science. 346:545–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Price GD, Howitt SM. 2014. Plant science: Towards turbocharged photosynthesis. Nature. 513:497–498.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraje G, Sadana R, Karam G. 2005. Public health. Increasing international gaps in health-related publications. Science. 308:959–960.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Schwab K, Henriksen EA, Worlock JM, Roukes ML. 2000. Measurement of the quantum of thermal conductance. Nature. 404:974–977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy G, Levin B. 2014. The Biostatistics of Aging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saitoh S. 2016. Theory of Reproducing Kernels and Applications. Sawano Y, editor. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Newcomb B, Hannun YA. 2015. Sphingolipids as Mediators of Breast Cancer Progression, Metastasis, Response and Resistance to Chemotherapy. In: Hannun YA, Luberto C, Mao C, Obeid LM, editors. Bioactive Sphingolipids in Cancer Biology and Therapy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 81–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofouling.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. First Vaccine For ’Mad-Cow’- Like Disease In Deer Shows Promise. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Information Technology: Management and Oversight of Projects Totaling Billions of Dollars Need Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herman GS. 2013. Terahertz local oscillator via difference frequency generation in iii-v semiconductors using frequency stabilized lasers [Doctoral dissertation]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. 2012. Mystery House. New York Times.:ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Price & Howitt 2014; Lee 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Price & Howitt 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwab et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofouling
ISSN (print)0892-7014
ISSN (online)1029-2454
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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