How to format your references using the Biofouling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofouling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rokas A. 2013. Genetics. My oldest sister is a sea walnut? Science. 342(6164):1327–1329.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pizzarello S, Weber AL. 2004. Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts. Science. 303(5661):1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang S, Bai M, Wang L. 2013. General and facile surface functionalization of hydrophobic nanocrystals with poly(amino acid) for cell luminescence imaging. Sci Rep. 3:2023.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Sano Y, Inamura K, Miyake A, Mochizuki S, Yokoi H, Matsushime H, Furuichi K. 2001. Immunocyte Ca2+ influx system mediated by LTRPC2. Science. 293(5533):1327–1330.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. 2014. Design of Steel Structures. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Aggarwal VK, Koo MG, Lee S, Moon C-I, editors. 2009. Northeast Asia: Ripe for Integration? Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Matalonga S, Rodrigues F, Travassos GH. 2015. Matching Context Aware Software Testing Design Techniques to ISO/IEC/IEEE 29119. In: Rout T, O’Connor RV, Dorling A, editors. Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 15th International Conference, SPICE 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 16-17, 2015 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofouling.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Can You Really Be GM-free? Why New European Laws Pose A Moral Dilemma. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Electronic Government: Selected Agency Plans for Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis SS. 2006. Identification of Stress-Responsive Genes in the Early Larval Stage of the Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas [Doctoral dissertation]. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Miller J. 2016. The Modern’s Progress. New York Times.:BR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rokas 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Pizzarello & Weber 2004; Rokas 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pizzarello & Weber 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Sano et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofouling
ISSN (print)0892-7014
ISSN (online)1029-2454
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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