How to format your references using the Biofouling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biofouling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S. 2015. Microbiome: Microbial mystery. Nature. 521(7551):S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yusufzai T, Kadonaga JT. 2008. HARP is an ATP-driven annealing helicase. Science. 322(5902):748–750.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ortega F, Escaso F, Sanz JL. 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain. Nature. 467(7312):203–206.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Kim M, Cui M-L, Cubas P, Gillies A, Lee K, Chapman MA, Abbott RJ, Coen E. 2008. Regulatory genes control a key morphological and ecological trait transferred between species. Science. 322(5904):1116–1119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alrifai T. 2015. Islamic Finance and the New Financial System. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Patel VB, Preedy VR, editors. 2016. Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Grobman S, Cerra A. 2016. No Second Chance. In: Cerra A, editor. The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War. Berkeley, CA: Apress; p. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biofouling.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Drug Could Rejuvenate Aging Brain And Muscle Tissue. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Highway Trust Fund: Possible Impact if It Had Financed All Highway Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ibarra AL. 2017. Novice Clinicians and the Experience of Transcendence in Clinical Training and Supervision [Doctoral dissertation]. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017. Returning to Broadway on Heavier Wings. New York Times.:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Yusufzai and Kadonaga 2008; DeWeerdt 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yusufzai and Kadonaga 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiofouling
ISSN (print)0892-7014
ISSN (online)1029-2454
ScopeAquatic Science
Water Science and Technology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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