How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hobert O (2008) Gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs. Science 319:1785–1786
A journal article with 2 authors
Mandelli D, Tosatti E (2015) Nanophysics: Microscopic friction emulators. Nature 526:332–333
A journal article with 3 authors
Li L, Dudin YO, Kuzmich A (2013) Entanglement between light and an optical atomic excitation. Nature 498:466–469
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Parker JG, Marshall JD, Ahanonu B, et al (2018) Diametric neural ensemble dynamics in parkinsonian and dyskinetic states. Nature 557:177–182

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braudeau E, Assi AT, Mohtar RH (2016) Hydrostructural Pedology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Castoria G, Migliaccio A (eds) (2012) Advances in Rapid Sex-Steroid Action: New Challenges and New Chances in Breast and Prostate Cancers. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong J, Dou N-N (2016) A Novel Hypothesis on the Mechanism of Hemifacial Spasm. In: Li S-T, Zhong J, Sekula RF Jr (eds) Microvascular Decompression Surgery. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Japan Wants To Put A Giant Solar Farm In Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Elementary and Secondary Education: Ed-Flex States Vary in Implementation of Waiver Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper NR (2017) The Relationship between Worry Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and True Memory, False Memory, and Metamemory. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2016) Gifted Frenemies, Egging Each Other on to Greatness. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hobert 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hobert 2008; Mandelli and Tosatti 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mandelli and Tosatti 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Parker et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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