How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2003) Moving targets. Nature 423:1021
A journal article with 2 authors
Winkowski DE, Knudsen EI (2006) Top-down gain control of the auditory space map by gaze control circuitry in the barn owl. Nature 439:336–339
A journal article with 3 authors
Sessa P, Meconi F, Han S (2014) Double dissociation of neural responses supporting perceptual and cognitive components of social cognition: evidence from processing of others’ pain. Sci Rep 4:7424
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang H, Chroneos A, Londos CA, et al (2014) Carbon related defects in irradiated silicon revisited. Sci Rep 4:4909

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grotewold E, Chappell J, Kellogg EA (2015) Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kaul SC, Wadhwa R (eds) (2012) Mortalin Biology: Life, Stress and Death. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Gregory D (2015) Gabriel’s Map: Cartography and Corpography in Modern War. In: Meusburger P, Gregory D, Suarsana L (eds) Geographies of Knowledge and Power. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 89–121

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Tasty Treat: How We Showed Fat To Be The Sixth Taste. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/tasty-treat-how-we-showed-fat-be-sixth-taste/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Amtrak: Issues for Reauthorization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens BS (2017) Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly F (1985) MEMORIAL MUSEUM TO HONOR STATE POLICE. New York Times 11NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Winkowski and Knudsen 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Winkowski and Knudsen 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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