How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sowers T (2006) Late Quaternary atmospheric CH4 isotope record suggests marine clathrates are stable. Science 311:838–840
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth MS, Deheyn DD (2013) Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals. Sci Rep 3:1421
A journal article with 3 authors
Didenko YT, McNamara WB 3rd, Suslick KS (2000) Molecular emission from single-bubble sonoluminescence. Nature 407:877–879
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stavrou E, Ahart M, Mahmood MF, Goncharov AF (2013) Probing the different spatial scales of Kel F-800 polymeric glass under pressure. Sci Rep 3:1290

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girmscheid G (2013) Bauprozesse und Bauverfahren des Tunnelbaus. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Belfort M, Wood DW, Stoddard BL, Derbyshire V (eds) (2005) Homing Endonucleases and Inteins. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Proto M, Malandrino O, Supino S (2013) The Implementation of Integrated Management System in Agri-Food SMEs. In: Salomone R, Clasadonte MT, Proto M, Raggi A (eds) Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 89–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) The UAE Wants To Build A ‘Rainmaking Mountain’ – Are We All Ok With That? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Smart Highways: An Assessment of Their Potential to Improve Travel. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tchen Y (2010) An evaluation of the effectiveness of mandatory reporting of health care associated infection. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Top Chechen Reported Killed. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sowers 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Sowers 2006; Roth and Deheyn 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roth and Deheyn 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stavrou et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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