How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2003) Singapore: filling biopolis. Nature 425:746–747
A journal article with 2 authors
Masataka N, Perlovsky L (2013) Cognitive interference can be mitigated by consonant music and facilitated by dissonant music. Sci Rep 3:2028
A journal article with 3 authors
Vance D, Teagle DAH, Foster GL (2009) Variable Quaternary chemical weathering fluxes and imbalances in marine geochemical budgets. Nature 458:493–496
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zachos JC, Shackleton NJ, Revenaugh JS, et al (2001) Climate response to orbital forcing across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Science 292:274–278

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman SH (2006) ESD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Becker W (ed) (2015) Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Cho JR, Park J, Sano Y (2013) Edge-disjoint Decompositions of Complete Multipartite Graphs into Gregarious Long Cycles. In: Akiyama J, Kano M, Sakai T (eds) Computational Geometry and Graphs: Thailand-Japan Joint Conference, TJJCCGG 2012, Bangkok, Thailand, December 6-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–63

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Mars One Finalist Announces That It’s All A Scam. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Climate Monitoring: NOAA Can Improve Management of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrlich A (2010) Transparency and medical interventions in vital statistics reports: Quantitative research and analysis. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pendleton I (1934) THE HIGHWAY BEAUTIFUL; Private Citizens and State Officials Cooperate to Create Natural Scenery Along Paved Roads. New York Times DRAMA SCREEN MUSIC RADIO FASHIONS ARTX12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Masataka and Perlovsky 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Masataka and Perlovsky 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zachos et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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