How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Booth BB (2015) Climate change. Why the Pacific is cool. Science 347:952
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards TA, Gomes SL (2015) Protistology: How to build a microbial eye. Nature 523:166–167
A journal article with 3 authors
Szostak JW, Bartel DP, Luisi PL (2001) Synthesizing life. Nature 409:387–390
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sidor CA, O’Keefe FR, Damiani R, et al (2005) Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea. Nature 434:886–889

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones P, Burger J (2009) Configuring SAP® ERP Financials and Controlling. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Kratochvíl M (2005) Growing Modular: Mass Customization of Complex Products, Services and Software. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sheth S, Desai AP (2016) Pyloric Stenosis. In: Guandalini S, Dhawan A, Branski D (eds) Textbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition: A Comprehensive Guide to Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Dog Born Without Front Limbs Given 3D Printed Legs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) A Bibliography of Documents Issued by the GAO on Matters Related to: ADP, IRM and Telecommunications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gros TR (2009) A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein J, Palmer E (2016) A Mysterious Death on the Upper East Side Unsettles Residents. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Booth 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Booth 2015; Richards and Gomes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richards and Gomes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Sidor et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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