How to format your references using the International Journal of Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young ED (2007) Geochemistry. Strange water in the solar system. Science 317:211–212
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaminski T, Heimann M (2001) Inverse modeling of atmospheric carbon dioxide fluxes. Science 294:259
A journal article with 3 authors
Raj K, Ogston P, Beard P (2001) Virus-mediated killing of cells that lack p53 activity. Nature 412:914–917
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chang HH, Hemberg M, Barahona M, et al (2008) Transcriptome-wide noise controls lineage choice in mammalian progenitor cells. Nature 453:544–547

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, et al (2008) A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Altrock U, Schoon S (eds) (2014) Maturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
McLean JM, Athwal GS, Daneshvar P (2016) Reconstruction Techniques for Fractures of the Proximal Ulna and Radial Head. In: Antuña S, Barco R (eds) Essential Techniques in Elbow Surgery. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–86

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Top Pharmaceutical Companies Ranked On How They Are Improving Access To Medicine. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/top-pharmaceutical-companies-ranked-on-how-they-are-improving-access-to-medicine/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Basic Sources of International Petroleum Statistics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda ES (2017) American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Reprieve Of Sorts In a Costly Blunder. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kaminski and Heimann 2001; Young 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaminski and Heimann 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Earth Sciences
AbbreviationGeol. Rundsch.
ISSN (print)1437-3254
ISSN (online)1437-3262
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

Other styles