How to format your references using the BMJ Quality Improvement Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Quality Improvement Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Sun T-P. Plant Science. Sex and the single fern. Science 2014;346:423–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Oppenheim J, Wehner S. The uncertainty principle determines the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. Science 2010;330:1072–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Coyte KZ, Schluter J, Foster KR. The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability. Science 2015;350:663–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Laskar A, Singh R, Ghose S, et al. Hydrodynamic instabilities provide a generic route to spontaneous biomimetic oscillations in chemomechanically active filaments. Sci Rep 2013;3:1964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Braha A, Groza G. Moderne Abwassertechnik. Weinheim, FRG: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2006.
An edited book
1
Kim SS, editor. Oocyte Biology in Fertility Preservation. New York, NY: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Walker P. The Privileging of ‘Place’ Within South Australia’s Education Works. In: Corcoran T, White J, Whitburn B, eds. Disability Studies: Educating for Inclusion. Rotterdam: : SensePublishers 2015. 75–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Quality Improvement Reports.

Blog post
1
Hale T. Another Newly Discovered Asteroid Will Fly By Earth Tonight. IFLScience. 2017.https://www.iflscience.com/space/another-newly-discovered-asteroid-will-fly-by-earth-tonight/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Award of Grant by Education. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Negussie H. Integration of indigenous knowledge and cultural practices in early childhood care and education programs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: An exploratory case study. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Vecsey G. A Gifted Talker Is Speaking Out. New York Times. 2010;:SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Quality Improvement Reports
AbbreviationBMJ Qual. Improv. Rep.
ISSN (online)2050-1315
Scope

Other styles