How to format your references using the BMJ Quality Improvement Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Quality Improvement Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Winful HG. Optics (communication arising): mechanism for ‘superluminal’ tunnelling. Nature 2003;424:638; discussion 638.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Shenoy SK, Rockman HA. Cardiovascular biology: heart fails without pump partner. Nature 2011;477:546–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Logvenov G, Gozar A, Bozovic I. High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science 2009;326:699–702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Liu H, Jiang T, Han B, et al. Selective phenol hydrogenation to cyclohexanone over a dual supported Pd-Lewis acid catalyst. Science 2009;326:1250–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Biswas S, Ray P, Chakrabarti BK. Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake. Weinheim, Germany: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2015.
An edited book
1
Siemionow MZ, editor. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Experimental Models and Research Designs. London: : Springer 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Boutellier R, Heinzen M. Diffusion of New Technologies. In: Heinzen M, ed. Growth Through Innovation: Managing the Technology-Driven Enterprise. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Quality Improvement Reports.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Watch A Man Deliver Three Baby Sharks From Dead Mother With Emergency C-Section. IFLScience. 2014.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/watch-man-deliver-three-baby-sharks-dead-mother-emergency-c-section/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Decision To Close the Sacramento Loan Guaranty Office and Planned Study of Other Loan Guaranty Operations. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
McElhoes JL. Spatial, Technological, and Functional Variability Among the Prehistoric Ceramics of the Southern California Coast. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1
Kelly M. Clinton Seeks to Expand Presidential Privacy. New York Times. 1992;:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Quality Improvement Reports
AbbreviationBMJ Qual. Improv. Rep.
ISSN (online)2050-1315
Scope

Other styles