How to format your references using the Progress in Aerospace Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Aerospace Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Zanette, Playing by numbers, Nature. 453 (2008) 988–989.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.J. Garnero, A.K. McNamara, Structure and dynamics of Earth’s lower mantle, Science. 320 (2008) 626–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.A. Bhowmick, E.G. Neilson, H.L. Moses, Stromal fibroblasts in cancer initiation and progression, Nature. 432 (2004) 332–337.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.J. Leishman, O.V. Naidenko, A. Attinger, F. Koning, C.J. Lena, Y. Xiong, H.C. Chang, E. Reinherz, M. Kronenberg, H. Cheroutre, T cell responses modulated through interaction between CD8alphaalpha and the nonclassical MHC class I molecule, TL, Science. 294 (2001) 1936–1939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.A. Richards, J.C. Hollerton, Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
N.H. Bshouty, C. Gentile, eds., Learning Theory: 20th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2007, San Diego, CA, USA; June 13-15, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
F.M. Griffin, G.R. Scuderi, J.N. Insall, Lateral Release for Fixed-Valgus Deformity, in: G.R. Scuderi, A.J. Tria (Eds.), Knee Arthroplasty Handbook: Techniques in Total Knee and Revision Arthroplasty, Springer, New York, NY, 2006: pp. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Aerospace Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Code-A-Cola: How To Hide Secret Messages Using Fizzy Drinks, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Motor Vehicles: Agencies’ Progress in Meeting Expenditure Control Requirements, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.L. Polk, Examining students with disabilities in a linked learning pathway, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Sci-Fi Western on HBO? Yes, It’s Dark, New York Times. (2016) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Aerospace Sciences
AbbreviationProg. Aerosp. Sci.
ISSN (print)0376-0421
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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