How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sweatt JD. Neuroscience. Epigenetics and cognitive aging. Science. 2010;328:701–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McPherson MS, Schapiro MO. Education. Funding roller coaster for public higher education. Science. 2003;302:1157.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gilbert IR, Jarvis PG, Smith H. Proximity signal and shade avoidance differences between early and late successional trees. Nature. 2001;411:792–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bourgoin M, Ouellette NT, Xu H, Berg J, Bodenschatz E. The role of pair dispersion in turbulent flow. Science. 2006;311:835–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Khan RM. Problem Solving and Data Analysis using Minitab. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Ramos C, Novais P, Nihan CE, Corchado Rodríguez JM, editors. Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramachandran S. Benevolent Funds: Philanthropic Practices of the South African Diaspora in Ontario, Canada. In: Chikanda A, Crush J, Walton-Roberts M, editors. Diasporas, Development and Governance. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Meet The Three-Foot-Long Worms That Mate In Your Abdomen [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: VA Actions to Improve Management of Information Resources. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Apr. Report No.: IMTEC-89-24.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Knudsen E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder empowerment program: A grant project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. The Skyjacker’s Tale. New York Times. 2017 Jun 29;C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Health Care Sci.
ISSN (online)2055-0294

Other styles