How to format your references using the BMJ Open Respiratory Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMJ Open Respiratory Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Wigley TML. The climate change commitment. Science 2005;307:1766–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Golestani A, Gras R. Can we predict the unpredictable? Sci Rep 2014;4:6834.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Hansell DA, Kadko D, Bates NR. Degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon in the western Arctic Ocean. Science 2004;304:858–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Burrows MT, Schoeman DS, Buckley LB, et al. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Science 2011;334:652–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Iacus SM. Option Pricing and Estimation of Financial Models with R. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2011.
An edited book
1
Alam SJ, Parunak HVD, editors. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation XIV: International Workshop, MABS 2013, Saint Paul, MN, USA, May 6-7, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Musselman JG. Natural Law for Teaching Ethics: An Essential Tool and Not a Seamless Web. In: Cherry MJ, ed. The Normativity of the Natural: Human Goods, Human Virtues, and Human Flourishing. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2009. 55–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMJ Open Respiratory Research.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Our Star Trek-Style Skin-Healing Technology Could Be The End Of Chronic Wounds. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/our-star-trek-style-skin-healing-technology-could-be-end-chronic-wounds/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Biological Research: Observations on DHS’s Analyses Concerning Whether FMD Research Can Be Done as Safely on the Mainland as on Plum Island. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Wuebbels PJ. Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Vanderwoude M. Precious Scents on Father’s Day. New York Times. 2016;:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMJ Open Respiratory Research
AbbreviationBMJ Open Respir. Res.
ISSN (online)2052-4439
Scope

Other styles