How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Agre, Peter. 2010. “The Family Naturalist.” Nature 467 (7317): S11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts, David L., and Andrew R. Solow. 2003. “Flightless Birds: When Did the Dodo Become Extinct?” Nature 426 (6964): 245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoeppner, D. J., M. O. Hengartner, and R. Schnabel. 2001. “Engulfment Genes Cooperate with Ced-3 to Promote Cell Death in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Nature 412 (6843): 202–206.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kominis, I. K., T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis. 2003. “A Subfemtotesla Multichannel Atomic Magnetometer.” Nature 422 (6932): 596–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horrocks, Geoffrey. 2010. Greek. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Modrow, Susanne. 2013. Molecular Virology. Edited by Dietrich Falke, Uwe Truyen, and Hermann Schätzl. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Delgado, João M. P. Q., Eva Barreira, Nuno M. M. Ramos, and Vasco Peixoto de Freitas. 2013. “Conclusions and Perspectives.” In Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics, edited by Eva Barreira, Nuno M. M. Ramos, and Vasco Peixoto de Freitas, 65–66. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “We Can Still Keep Global Warming Below 2℃ – But The Hard Work Is About To Start.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Telephone Communications: Issues Affecting Rural Telephone Service. RCED-87-74. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do, Nghia Huy. 2012. “An Examination of Support Systems to Enable Vietnamese Immigrants to Acquire English Skills.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2010. “Pension Fraud By New Jersey Cited by S.E.C.” New York Times, August 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Agre 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Agre 2010; Roberts and Solow 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts and Solow 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hoeppner, Hengartner, and Schnabel 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kominis et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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