How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocum, David L. 2007. “Developmental Biology. Acceptable NAGging.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5851): 754–755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weimerskirch, H., and R. P. Wilson. 2000. “Oceanic Respite for Wandering Albatrosses.” Nature 406 (6799): 955–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walden, Helen, Michael S. Podgorski, and Brenda A. Schulman. 2003. “Insights into the Ubiquitin Transfer Cascade from the Structure of the Activating Enzyme for NEDD8.” Nature 422 (6929): 330–334.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Singh, Pradeep K., Matthew R. Parsek, E. Peter Greenberg, and Michael J. Welsh. 2002. “A Component of Innate Immunity Prevents Bacterial Biofilm Development.” Nature 417 (6888): 552–555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moe, Terry M., and John E. Chubb. 2009. Liberating Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Bernard, Alain, and Serge Tichkiewitch, eds. 2008. Methods and Tools for Effective Knowledge Life-Cycle-Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Allison, Ben. 2008. “Sentiment Detection Using Lexically-Based Classifiers.” In Text, Speech and Dialogue: 11th International Conference, TSD 2008, Brno, Czech Republic, September 8-12, 2008. Proceedings, edited by Petr Sojka, Aleš Horák, Ivan Kopeček, and Karel Pala, 21–28. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Mining Conquistadors Caused Air Pollution 200 Years Before The Industrial Revolution.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Management Issues at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. T-NSIAD-91-48. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uzan, Erol. 2017. “Secondary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers’ Processes of Selection and Integration of Technology.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, Anemona. 2014. “Doctor Who Worked on Rivers Steps Down From Post at Medical Clinic.” New York Times, September 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stocum 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Stocum 2007; Weimerskirch and Wilson 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weimerskirch and Wilson 2000)
  • Three authors: (Walden, Podgorski, and Schulman 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Singh et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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