How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Suomalainen, Anu. 2015. “Stem Cells: Asymmetric Rejuvenation.” Nature 521 (7552): 296–298.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouchon, Michel, and Hayrullah Karabulut. 2008. “The Aftershock Signature of Supershear Earthquakes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5881): 1323–1325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flak, Magdalena B., Joana F. Neves, and Richard S. Blumberg. 2013. “Immunology. Welcome to the Microgenderome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6123): 1044–1045.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hochberg, Georg K. A., Dale A. Shepherd, Erik G. Marklund, Indu Santhanagoplan, Matteo T. Degiacomi, Arthur Laganowsky, Timothy M. Allison, et al. 2018. “Structural Principles That Enable Oligomeric Small Heat-Shock Protein Paralogs to Evolve Distinct Functions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 359 (6378): 930–935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Andrea, Amy, and Jessica Sjogren. 2013. Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Antona, Margherita, and Constantine Stephanidis, eds. 2016. Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Context Diversity: 10th International Conference, UAHCI 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part III. Vol. 9739. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Richardson, Sophie, and Nicholas Gilmour. 2016. “Table.” In Intelligence and Security Oversight: An Annotated Bibliography and Comparative Analysis, edited by Nicholas Gilmour, 13–19. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “Why You Should Never Wear Cheap, Unfitted Contact Lenses.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Aviation Security: Immediate Action Needed to Improve Security. T-RCED/NSIAD-96-237. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vu, Man H. 2010. “Efficiency of Pair-Wise and Multiple Alignment Algorithms in Computational Biology.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2006. “The Legacies They Left.” New York Times, January 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Suomalainen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Suomalainen 2015; Bouchon and Karabulut 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouchon and Karabulut 2008)
  • Three authors: (Flak, Neves, and Blumberg 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hochberg et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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