How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, J. Daniel. 2014. “Make Diagnostic Centres a Priority for Ebola Crisis.” Nature 513 (7517): 145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stone, Richard, and Marc Lavine. 2014. “Robots. The Social Life of Robots. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6206): 178–179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnarez, C., S. J. Marrink, and X. Periole. 2013. “Identification of Cardiolipin Binding Sites on Cytochrome c Oxidase at the Entrance of Proton Channels.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1263.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kolenderski, Piotr, Carmelo Scarcella, Kelsey D. Johnsen, Deny R. Hamel, Catherine Holloway, Lynden K. Shalm, Simone Tisa, Alberto Tosi, Kevin J. Resch, and Thomas Jennewein. 2014. “Time-Resolved Double-Slit Interference Pattern Measurement with Entangled Photons.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallios, William S. 2010. Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ellerton, Nerida F. 2014. Abraham Lincoln’s Cyphering Book and Ten Other Extraordinary Cyphering Books. Edited by M. A. (ken) Clements. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Stückler, Jörg, David Droeschel, Kathrin Gräve, Dirk Holz, Jochen Kläß, Michael Schreiber, Ricarda Steffens, and Sven Behnke. 2012. “Towards Robust Mobility, Flexible Object Manipulation, and Intuitive Multimodal Interaction for Domestic Service Robots.” In RoboCup 2011: Robot Soccer World Cup XV, edited by Thomas Röfer, N. Michael Mayer, Jesus Savage, and Uluc̨ Saranlı, 51–62. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Rosetta Scientists Optimistic Philae Could Wake Up Early Next Year.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Aviation Safety: FAA’s Safety Inspection Management System Lacks Adequate Oversight. RCED-90-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Littlefield, Scott. 2017. “Application of Discrete Event Simulation to Modeling Reliability of Highly Parallel Systems with Common Cause Failures.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. 2017. “Another Casualty of the Syrian War: Drinking Water in Damascus.” New York Times, January 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kelly 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kelly 2014; Stone and Lavine 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stone and Lavine 2014)
  • Three authors: (Arnarez, Marrink, and Periole 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kolenderski et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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