How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, Erika. 2003. “Journals Tighten up on Biosecurity.” Nature 421 (6925): 774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ringler, Philippe, and Georg E. Schulz. 2003. “Self-Assembly of Proteins into Designed Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5642): 106–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teuten, Emma L., Li Xu, and Christopher M. Reddy. 2005. “Two Abundant Bioaccumulated Halogenated Compounds Are Natural Products.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5711): 917–920.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huber, Dale L., Ronald P. Manginell, Michael A. Samara, Byung-Il Kim, and Bruce C. Bunker. 2003. “Programmed Adsorption and Release of Proteins in a Microfluidic Device.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5631): 352–354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter, R. J. 1998. Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Taguchi, Tomoaki, Tadashi Iwanaka, and Takao Okamatsu, eds. 2016. Operative General Surgery in Neonates and Infants. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarbo, Janos J., Jozsef I. Farkas, and Auke J. J. van Breemen. 2011. “A World of Signs.” In Knowledge in Formation: A Computational Theory of Interpretation, edited by Jozsef I. Farkas and Auke J. J. van Breemen, 55–65. Cognitive Technologies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Folding Graphene Like Origami May Allow Us To Wear Sensors In Our Skin.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Status Information: FAA’s Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency Planning Efforts Are Ongoing. AIMD-99-40R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, Michael. 2013. “Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “Putting It Together, Piece by Piece.” New York Times, September 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2003; Ringler and Schulz 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ringler and Schulz 2003)
  • Three authors: (Teuten, Xu, and Reddy 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huber et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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