How to format your references using the Diaspora Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diaspora Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morr, Dirk K. 2014. “Physics. Lifting the Fog of Complexity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6169): 382–383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rickaby, R. E. M., and P. Halloran. 2005. “Cool La Niña during the Warmth of the Pliocene?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5717): 1948–1952.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz, Mark R., Christopher F. McKee, and Richard I. Klein. 2005. “The Formation of Stars by Gravitational Collapse Rather than Competitive Accretion.” Nature 438 (7066): 332–334.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kapitaniak, Marcin, Mateusz Lazarek, Michal Nielaczny, Krzysztof Czolczynski, Przemyslaw Perlikowski, and Tomasz Kapitaniak. 2014. “Synchronization Extends the Life Time of the Desired Behavior of Globally Coupled Systems.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney, Nick. 2015. How to Be Great at Doing Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sirgy, M. Joseph, Rhonda Phillips, and D. Rahtz, eds. 2011. Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases V. Vol. 3. Community Quality-of-Life Indicators, Best Cases. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Munoz-Garcia, Felix, and Daniel Toro-Gonzalez. 2016. “Applications to Industrial Organization.” In Strategy and Game Theory: Practice Exercises with Answers, edited by Daniel Toro-Gonzalez, 145–181. Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diaspora Studies.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “The Oceans Could Soon Not Have Enough Oxygen To Support Marine Life.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. B-165118. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ireland, Kaitlyn S. 2017. “The Role Family Communication Patterns Play in Shaping People’s Responses and Perceived Outcomes to Boundary Turbulence via Privacy Breaches in Their Personal Relationships.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. “Claude Brown’s Harlem, Still on the Mind.” New York Times, February 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morr 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Morr 2014; Rickaby and Halloran 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rickaby and Halloran 2005)
  • Three authors: (Krumholz, McKee, and Klein 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kapitaniak et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiaspora Studies
ISSN (print)0973-9572
ISSN (online)0976-3457
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles