How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Church, G., 2005. Let us go forth and safely multiply. Nature 438, 423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chitwood, D.H., Timmermans, M.C.P., 2010. Small RNAs are on the move. Nature 467, 415–419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peng, L., Song, Z.-G., Jiao, S.-C., 2014. Efficacy analysis of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on rare non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring complex EGFR mutations. Sci. Rep. 4, 6104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Edwards, J.K., Solsona, B., N, E.N., Carley, A.F., Herzing, A.A., Kiely, C.J., Hutchings, G.J., 2009. Switching off hydrogen peroxide hydrogenation in the direct synthesis process. Science 323, 1037–1041.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dao, T.T., Ho Ba Tho, M.-C., 2014. Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mitra, S.K. (Ed.), 2013. Citizenship as Cultural Flow: Structure, Agency and Power, Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ester, M., Göhner, J.F., Tilmes, J., 2016. Man the Irrational Animal?, in: Bahr, A., Seidel, M. (Eds.), Ernest Sosa: Targeting His Philosophy, Münster Lectures in Philosophy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, C., 2017. Watch How These Amazing Fish Escape Predators [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Review of Vending Operations on Federally Controlled Property (No. B-176886). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLaney, B., 2015. Youth center for improving health and wellness (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Craig, S., Chen, D.W., 2016. Trump in New York: Deep Roots, but Little Sway. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Church, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chitwood and Timmermans, 2010; Church, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chitwood and Timmermans, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Edwards et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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