How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lellouch, E., 2006. Planetary science. Titan’s zoo of clouds. Science 311, 186–187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trembleau, L., Rebek, J., Jr, 2003. Helical conformation of alkanes in a hydrophobic cavitand. Science 301, 1219–1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang, S.-T., Kuo, Y.-H., Su, M.-J., 2014. Antifibrotic effects of KS370G, a caffeamide derivative, in renal ischemia-reperfusion injured mice and renal tubular epithelial cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 5814.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, Y., Huang, F., Chen, C.-F., Xia, M., Cai, Q., Qian, F.-J., Xiang, J., 2013. Control self-assembly of hydrazide-based cyclic hexamers: in or out. Sci. Rep. 3, 1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taha, A.-E.M., Hassanein, H.S., Ali, N.A., 2011. LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Herrmann, C., Terhechte, J.P. (Eds.), 2010. European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2010, European Yearbook of International Economic Law. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
LeHew, C.W., 2013. Challenges in Community-Based Head and Neck Cancer Prevention Programs, in: Radosevich, J.A. (Ed.), Head & Neck Cancer: Current Perspectives, Advances, and Challenges. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Two New Horned Dinosaur Discoveries Reveal A Striking Evolutionary Divide [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail: Better Data and Communication of Uncertainties Can Help Decision Makers Understand Benefits and Trade-offs of Programs and Policies (No. GAO-11-290). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lovejoy, L.P., 2010. On the control of selective attention in the primate superior colliculus (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M., 2015. The High Price of Pretty Nails. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lellouch, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Lellouch, 2006; Trembleau and Rebek, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trembleau and Rebek, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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