How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohlemüller, R., 2011. Climate. Running out of climate space. Science 334, 613–614.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moënne-Loccoz, P., Fee, J.A., 2010. Biochemistry. Catalyzing NO to N2O in the nitrogen cycle. Science 330, 1632–1633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sekiguchi, Y., Arai, K., Kohshima, S., 2006. Sleep behaviour: sleep in continuously active dolphins. Nature 441, E9-10; discussion E11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Szabo, S.J., Sullivan, B.M., Stemmann, C., Satoskar, A.R., Sleckman, B.P., Glimcher, L.H., 2002. Distinct effects of T-bet in TH1 lineage commitment and IFN-gamma production in CD4 and CD8 T cells. Science 295, 338–342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, B., Roy, D.M., 2005. Service Design for Six Sigma. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chenneville, T. (Ed.), 2016. A Clinical Guide to Pediatric HIV: Bridging the Gaps Between Research and Practice. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Saeed, A., Panguluri, S.K., 2013. Chickpea Phenotyping, in: Panguluri, S.K., Kumar, A.A. (Eds.), Phenotyping for Plant Breeding: Applications of Phenotyping Methods for Crop Improvement. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 111–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Climate Change May Fan The Flames Of War And Make Violent Crime More Common [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Earth Observing System: Broader Involvement of the EOSDIS User Community Is Needed (No. IMTEC-92-40). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reilly, C.A., 2014. Information and Communication Technology Use in the College Classroom: Adjunct Faculty Perspectives (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, M., Risen, J., 2017. Trump’s Intelligence Nominee Gets an Early Lesson in Managing the White House. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ohlemüller, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Moënne-Loccoz and Fee, 2010; Ohlemüller, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moënne-Loccoz and Fee, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Szabo et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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