How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kronenberg, H.M., 2003. Developmental regulation of the growth plate. Nature 423, 332–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singel, D.J., Stamler, J.S., 2004. Blood traffic control. Nature 430, 297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poss, K.D., Wilson, L.G., Keating, M.T., 2002. Heart regeneration in zebrafish. Science 298, 2188–2190.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, R., Farrona, S., Vincent, C., Joecker, A., Schoof, H., Turck, F., Alonso-Blanco, C., Coupland, G., Albani, M.C., 2009. PEP1 regulates perennial flowering in Arabis alpina. Nature 459, 423–427.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohanty, S., Ghosh, R., 2010. Planning a Scientific Career in Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zolle, I. (Ed.), 2007. Technetium-99m Pharmaceuticals: Preparation and Quality Control in Nuclear Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Sobolev, S.L., 2006. On a New Method of Solving Problems about Propagation of Vibrations, in: Demidenko, G.V., Vaskevich, V.L. (Eds.), Selected Works of S.L. Sobolev: Volume I: Mathematical Physics, Computational Mathematics, and Cubature Formulas. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 169–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Just 1/3 of Americans “believe” in the theory of evolution by natural selection [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Budgetary and Fiscal Information Needs of the Congress (No. B-115398). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peacock, C., 2012. Design science research toward designing/prototyping a repeatable model for testing location management (LM) algorithms for wireless networking (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2017. Puerto Rico’s Troubled Finances Add to Vulnerability During Hurricane. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kronenberg, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kronenberg, 2003; Singel and Stamler, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singel and Stamler, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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