How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyagi, S., 2010. Genomics. E. coli, what a noisy bug. Science 329, 518–519.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liang, B.A., Mackey, T., 2010. Health care policy. Reforming off-label promotion to enhance orphan disease treatment. Science 327, 273–274.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarano, F., Guimarães, A., da Silva, J.M., 2012. Rio+20: Lead by example. Nature 486, 25–26.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, M.G., Wynder, C., Cooch, N., Shiekhattar, R., 2005. An essential role for CoREST in nucleosomal histone 3 lysine 4 demethylation. Nature 437, 432–435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lade, P.V., 2016. Triaxial Testing of Soils. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hoffmann, F., Köppen, M., Klawonn, F., Roy, R. (Eds.), 2005. Soft Computing: Methodologies and Applications, Advances in Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Tamimi, H.A.H., Lafi, A.S., Uddin, M.H., 2016. Bank Image in the UAE: Comparing Islamic and Conventional Banks, in: Harrison, T., Ibrahim, E. (Eds.), Islamic Finance: Principles, Performance and Prospects, Applied Social Research Methods Service. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 46–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. CERN Just Released The First Results From Their Latest Experiment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. NASA Infrastructure: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies (No. NSIAD-96-187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon, R.L., 2010. Neural and behavioral correlates of song prosody (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Turmoil Continues at Pandora Media As C.E.O. Joins Management Exodus. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (French, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Elliott, 2014; Kane, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liang and Mackey, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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