How to format your references using the International Journal of Medical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Medical Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2002. American Chemical Society meeting. Science invades the Magic Kingdom. Science 296, 462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fujiwara, A., Takahashi, Y., 2001. Manipulation of elementary charge in a silicon charge-coupled device. Nature 410, 560–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer, P., Saez, L., Young, M.W., 2006. PER-TIM interactions in living Drosophila cells: an interval timer for the circadian clock. Science 311, 226–229.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oseki, M., Okubo, K., Kobayashi, A., Ohta, J., Fujioka, H., 2014. Field-effect transistors based on cubic indium nitride. Sci. Rep. 4, 3951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machner, H., 2005. Einführung in die Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Saharan, V., 2016. Chitosan Based Nanomaterials in Plant Growth and Protection, SpringerBriefs in Plant Science. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Assis, F., 2016. An Algorithm for k-Connectivity Under Pure SINR Model, in: Mitton, N., Loscri, V., Mouradian, A. (Eds.), Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 15th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2016, Lille, France, July 4-6, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 65–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Explainer: What Is Gene Doping – And Will Any Athletes At Rio 2016 Have Tried It? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. NASA: Medium Launch Transition Strategy Leverages Ongoing Investments but Is Not Without Risk (No. GAO-11-107). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bratton, K.J., 2014. Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S., 2016. Something Was Wrong. New York Times BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Fujiwara and Takahashi, 2001; Service, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fujiwara and Takahashi, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Oseki et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Med. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1438-4221
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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