How to format your references using the BMC Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schwefel HGL. Optics. In optical pumping, less can be more. Science. 2014;346:304–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cooper BG, Goller F. Multimodal signals: enhancement and constraint of song motor patterns by visual display. Science. 2004;303:544–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Stone JV, Hunkin NM, Hornby A. Predicting spontaneous recovery of memory. Nature. 2001;414:167–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bao H, Thiemens MH, Farquhar J, Campbell DA, Lee CC, Heine K, et al. Anomalous 17O compositions in massive sulphate deposits on the Earth. Nature. 2000;406:176–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chow S-C, Liu J-P. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Dobretsov N, Kolchanov N, Rozanov A, Zavarzin G, editors. Biosphere Origin and Evolution. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hamachi R, Tsukida I, Noda H. Activities to Improve System Integration and Service Quality and Add Additional Values - Reducing the Cost in Applying Human-Centered-Design Process. In: Marcus A, editor. Design, User Experience, and Usability. User Experience Design Practice: Third International Conference, DUXU 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part IV. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 32–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Urology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Turtles Seem Surprisingly Unafraid Of Sharks. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Pipeline Safety Risk Assessment Program Could Help Evaluate Inspection Cycle. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bennett MA. The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Card J. No Madonna. No Hanks. No Crying. New York Times. 2017;:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Urology
AbbreviationBMC Urol.
ISSN (online)1471-2490
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Reproductive Medicine

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