How to format your references using the BMC Pulmonary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pulmonary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ganem D. Virology. The X files--one step closer to closure. Science. 2001;294:2299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen X, Perc M. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4161.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mukhopadhyay S, Farley KA, Montanari A. A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3. Science. 2001;291:1952–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xie X, Zhou Y, Bi H, Yin K, Wan S, Sun L. Large-range control of the microstructures and properties of three-dimensional porous graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hooker J. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
1. Vashchenko VA. Physical Limitations of Semiconductor Devices. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Costabello L. Error-Tolerant RDF Subgraph Matching for Adaptive Presentation of Linked Data on Mobile. In: Presutti V, d’Amato C, Gandon F, d’Aquin M, Staab S, Tordai A, editors. The Semantic Web: Trends and Challenges: 11th International Conference, ESWC 2014, Anissaras, Crete, Greece, May 25-29, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 36–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pulmonary Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Scientists Explain Why We Love Pizza So Much. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Enhancements to Coordinating U.S. Enforcement Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Vaughan L. Executive function in daily life: Age-related influences of executive processes on instrumental activities of daily living. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. With Suit, Hedge Funds Seek to Freeze the Assets of a Top Puerto Rico Bank. New York Times. 2016;:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pulmonary Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Pulm. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-2466
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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