How to format your references using the BMC Pulmonary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pulmonary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hand E. Plumes of methane identified on Mars. Nature. 2008;455:1018.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. King DA, Thomas SM. Big lessons for a healthy future. Nature. 2007;449:791–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Khudiyev T, Huseyinoglu E, Bayindir M. Non-resonant Mie scattering: emergent optical properties of core-shell polymer nanowires. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4607.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang P, Crespi VH, Chang E, Louie SG, Cohen ML. Computational design of direct-bandgap semiconductors that lattice-match silicon. Nature. 2001;409:69–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lieberman JA, Tasman A. Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Träff JL, Hunold S, Versaci F, editors. Euro-Par 2015: Parallel Processing: 21st International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vienna, Austria, August 24-28, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Heinisch M, Reichel EK, Jakoby B. On the Modelling of Resonating Fluid Sensors. In: Moreno-Díaz R, Pichler F, Quesada-Arencibia A, editors. Computer Aided Systems Theory – EUROCAST 2011: 13th International Conference, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, February 6-11, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pulmonary Medicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Giant Planet In Baby Stellar System Hints At Unusual Planet Formation. IFLScience. 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/giant-planet-in-baby-stellar-system-hints-at-unusual-planet-formation/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Problems of the Upward Bound Program in Preparing Disadvantaged Students for a Postsecondary Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Warner KS. The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. As Reed Departs the Mets, Prospects Are on Their Way. New York Times. 2017;:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pulmonary Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Pulm. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-2466
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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