How to format your references using the BMC Pulmonary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pulmonary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rando TA. Stem cells, ageing and the quest for immortality. Nature. 2006;441:1080–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sacco T, Sacchetti B. Role of secondary sensory cortices in emotional memory storage and retrieval in rats. Science. 2010;329:649–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Tanaka G, Urabe C, Aihara K. Random and targeted interventions for epidemic control in metapopulation models. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5522.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang B, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang D, Baker PJ, Pratt FL, et al. Candidate quantum spin liquid due to dimensional reduction of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Balfour A. Solomon’s Temple. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bisognano JD, Beck R, Connell R, editors. Manual of Outpatient Cardiology. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Biskup J, Bonatti P. Controlled Query Evaluation with Open Queries for a Decidable Relational Submodel. In: Dix J, Hegner SJ, editors. Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 4th International Symposium, FoIKS 2006, Budapest, Hungary, Februrary 14-17, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 43–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pulmonary Medicine.

Blog post
1. Fang J. There’s A Second Layer Of Information In DNA. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/second-layer-of-information-in-dna/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Challenges of Protecting Personal Information in an Expanding Federal Computer Network Environment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wright EA. Assessing Leadership Behaviors and Demographic Characteristics of Project Managers Associated Through LinkedIn. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Candidate’s Record; Perot Shows Penchant For Seeing Conspiracy. New York Times. 1992;:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pulmonary Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Pulm. Med.
ISSN (online)1471-2466
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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