How to format your references using the Wader Study citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Wader Study. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hildebrandt, P. 2014. Biochemistry. More than fine tuning. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346: 1456–1457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemmer, P. & J. Wrachtrup. 2009. Physics. Where is my quantum computer? Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 473–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
GrandPré, T., S. Li & S.M. Strittmatter. 2002. Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes axonal regeneration. Nature 417: 547–551.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Elvin, C.M., A.G. Carr, M.G. Huson, J.M. Maxwell, R.D. Pearson, T. Vuocolo, N.E. Liyou, D.C.C. Wong, D.J. Merritt & N.E. Dixon. 2005. Synthesis and properties of crosslinked recombinant pro-resilin. Nature 437: 999–1002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Freeman, R.L. 2005. Fundamentals of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Buntine, W., M. Grobelnik, D. Mladenić & J. Shawe-Taylor, Eds. 2009. Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2009, Bled, Slovenia, September 7-11, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosemann, M. & J. vom Brocke. 2015. The Six Core Elements of Business Process Management. Pages 105–122 in: Handbook on Business Process Management 1: Introduction, Methods, and Information Systems (J. vom Brocke & M. Rosemann, Eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Wader Study.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. What’s The Healthiest Position To Sleep In? IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018 at:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for the Federal Approach to Providing and Improving Air Service to Small Communities. No. GAO-06-398T. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto, L. 2012. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Peters, J.W. 2017. A Conspiracy Theorist, His False Comey Tweet And a Runaway Story. New York Times: A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hildebrandt 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hemmer & Wrachtrup 2009, Hildebrandt 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hemmer & Wrachtrup 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Elvin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleWader Study
ISSN (print)2058-8410

Other styles