How to format your references using the BMC Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Webb B. Robots in invertebrate neuroscience. Nature. 2002;417:359–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ims RA, Andreassen HP. Spatial synchronization of vole population dynamics by predatory birds. Nature. 2000;408:194–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Amorisco NC, Evans NW, van de Ven G. The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature. 2014;507:335–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Degroote P, Aerts C, Baglin A, Miglio A, Briquet M, Noels A, et al. Deviations from a uniform period spacing of gravity modes in a massive star. Nature. 2010;464:259–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mattu A, Grossman SA, Rosen PL. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Ilaslan H. Pediatric and Adult MRI Atlas of Bone Marrow: Normal Appearances, Variants and Diffuse Disease States. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lemelin H, Johnston M, Lough D, Rowell J, Broomfield W, Baikie G, et al. Two Parks, One Vision – Collaborative Management Approaches to Transboundary Protected Areas in Northern Canada: Tongait KakKasuangita SilakKijapvinga/Torngat Mountains National Park, Nunatsiavut and le Parc national Kuururjuaq Nunavik. In: Herrmann TM, Martin T, editors. Indigenous Peoples’ Governance of Land and Protected Territories in the Arctic. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 71–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Psychiatry.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Rare Blue-Eyed Lemurs Could Go Extinct In 11 Years. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Insurance Premiums Charged by Guaranty Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bhandari S. The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lyall S. Three Beginnings, Reverse Chronology and A Novel That Starts Over in Every Chapter. New York Times. 2013;:MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Psychiatry
AbbreviationBMC Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1471-244X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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