How to format your references using the Trials in Vaccinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trials in Vaccinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.H. Thomas, Evolution. Wingless insects and plucked chickens, Science. 299 (2003) 1854–1855.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Schlein, R.L. Jacobson, Hunger tolerance and Leishmania in sandflies, Nature. 414 (2001) 168.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.D. Roopnarine, K.D. Angielczyk, R. Hertog, Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates,” Science. 314 (2006) 925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.R. McConnell, R. Edwards, G.L. Kok, M.G. Flanner, C.S. Zender, E.S. Saltzman, J.R. Banta, D.R. Pasteris, M.M. Carter, J.D.W. Kahl, 20th-century industrial black carbon emissions altered Arctic climate forcing, Science. 317 (2007) 1381–1384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.P. Lado, The Common Fisheries Policy, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
M. Veanes, L. Viganò, eds., Tests and Proofs: 7th International Conference, TAP 2013, Budapest, Hungary, June 16-20, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Bezdek, On Minimal Tilings with Convex Cells Each Containing a Unit Ball, in: K. Bezdek, A. Deza, Y. Ye (Eds.), Discrete Geometry and Optimization, Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trials in Vaccinology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Survey Finds 361 New Bird Species - And A Quarter Are Already Threatened, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Rail Safety: Federal Railroad Administration Should Report on Risks to the Successful Implementation of Mandated Safety Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.C. Dulick, Self-neglect among the elderly: Knowledge and perceptions of MSW students, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, One Injured Player Comes to Another’s Aid, but Now Murray Looms, New York Times. (2017) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrials in Vaccinology
ISSN (print)1879-4378

Other styles