How to format your references using the Trials in Vaccinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trials in Vaccinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, Bridging sectors. Medicon Valley, Nature. 420 (2002) A24-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
O. Reubi, J. Blundy, A dearth of intermediate melts at subduction zone volcanoes and the petrogenesis of arc andesites, Nature. 461 (2009) 1269–1273.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Kiesel, A. Renz, F. Hasselbach, Observation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss anticorrelations for free electrons, Nature. 418 (2002) 392–394.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Yusupova, L. Jenner, B. Rees, D. Moras, M. Yusupov, Structural basis for messenger RNA movement on the ribosome, Nature. 444 (2006) 391–394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Pohl, Building Science, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
J.I. Tait, ed., Charting a New Course: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval: Essays in Honour of Karen Spärck Jones, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
S.K. Gill, The Complexities of Re-reversal of Language-in-Education Policy in Malaysia, in: A. Kirkpatrick, R. Sussex (Eds.), English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trials in Vaccinology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Create World’s Thinnest Light Bulb Using Graphene, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Force Assessment of the Joint Strike Fighter’s Aerial Refueling Method, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Berkland, Strain analysis of a detachment shear zone, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Gelles, Sweating Out a Singles Mixer From Behind a Stall, New York Times. (2016) ST5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrials in Vaccinology
ISSN (print)1879-4378

Other styles