How to format your references using the Trials in Vaccinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trials in Vaccinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.L. Corless, Medicine. Personalized cancer diagnostics, Science. 334 (2011) 1217–1218.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Grayson, S. Pincock, Nature Index 2015 Collaborations, Nature. 527 (2015) S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Šubelj, D. Fiala, M. Bajec, Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z.-H. Zhou, T. Wild, Y. Xiong, P. Sylvers, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Wahl, S.M. Wahl, S. Kozlowski, A.L. Notkins, Polyreactive antibodies plus complement enhance the phagocytosis of cells made apoptotic by UV-light or HIV, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Stokes, Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2008.
An edited book
K. Kunisch, G. Of, O. Steinbach, eds., Numerical Mathematics and Advanced Applications: Proceedings of ENUMATH 2007, the 7th European Conference on Numerical Mathematics and Advanced Applications, Graz, Austria, September 2007, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Gasteuil, J.-F. Pinton, Linear and angular dynamics of an inertial particle in turbulence, in: B. Eckhardt (Ed.), Advances in Turbulence XII: Proceedings of the 12th EUROMECH European Turbulence Conference, September 7-10, 2009, Marburg, Germany, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 19–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trials in Vaccinology.

Blog post
T. Hale, National Geographic’s Nature Photographer Of The Year Winners Are As Awesome As Ever, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Characteristics of Defaulted Borrowers in the Stafford Student Loan Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.M. Murdock, Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Living With the Sweet Smell of Sap, New York Times. (2011) C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrials in Vaccinology
ISSN (print)1879-4378

Other styles