How to format your references using the Trials in Vaccinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trials in Vaccinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.L. Balch, Chemistry. H₂O in a desert of carbon atoms, Science. 333 (2011) 531–532.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Boesz, N. Lloyd, Collaborations: investigating international misconduct, Nature. 452 (2008) 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Miyazaki, K. Sueyoshi, T. Hiraga, Olivine crystals align during diffusion creep of Earth’s upper mantle, Nature. 502 (2013) 321–326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Srinivasan, F. Kaplan, R. Ajredini, C. Zachariah, H.T. Alborn, P.E.A. Teal, R.U. Malik, A.S. Edison, P.W. Sternberg, F.C. Schroeder, A blend of small molecules regulates both mating and development in Caenorhabditis elegans, Nature. 454 (2008) 1115–1118.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.R. Rosenberger, Risk-Adjusted Lending Conditions, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005.
An edited book
D. Jewitt, Trans-Neptunian Objects and Comets, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
S.R. Sarda, S.K. Wasmatkar, W.N. Jadhav, S.A. Dake, A.R. Sawale, N.S. Kaminwar, S.U. Shisodia, R.P. Pawar, Ammonium- and Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquid: Green and Reusable Catalysts, in: K.L. Ameta, A. Dandia (Eds.), Green Chemistry: Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles, Springer India, New Delhi, 2014: pp. 105–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trials in Vaccinology.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, NASA Paid This Guy $18,000 To Lie In A Bed For 70 Days, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax System Modernization: Management Mistakes Caused Delays in Automated Underreporter System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.D. Gage, An inconsistency-based approach for sensing assessment in unknown environments, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Sheldon Dorf, 76, Founder of Comic-Con, New York Times. (2009) B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrials in Vaccinology
ISSN (print)1879-4378

Other styles