How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. (2000). United States gives priority to skills shortage. Nature, 404(6778), 686–687.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann, D. E., & Rothenberg, K. H. (2005). Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5746), 241–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Preis, T., Moat, H. S., & Stanley, H. E. (2013). Quantifying trading behavior in financial markets using Google Trends. Scientific Reports, 3, 1684.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Adams, P. L., Stahley, M. R., Kosek, A. B., Wang, J., & Strobel, S. A. (2004). Crystal structure of a self-splicing group I intron with both exons. Nature, 430(6995), 45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dincer, I., Rosen, M. A., & Ahmadi, P. (2017). Optimization of Energy Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chirila, D. B. (2015). Introduction to Modern Fortran for the Earth System Sciences (G. Lohmann, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Winokur, T. (2005). Molecular Markers in Breast Cancer. In D. C. Chhieng & G. P. Siegal (Eds.), Updates in Diagnostic Pathology (pp. 35–41). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 23). Unburnable Carbon: Why We Need To Leave Fossil Fuels In The Ground. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Implementation of Public Law 94-142 as It Relates to Handicapped Delinquents in the District of Columbia (GGD-86-4). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan, G. C. (2015). Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Binder, S. (2017, May 8). A Disaster Wrapped In Victory. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffmann & Rothenberg, 2005; Wickware, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffmann & Rothenberg, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Preis et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Adams et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Learning Difficulties
AbbreviationAust. J. Learn. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1940-4158
ISSN (online)1940-4166
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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