How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rabitz, H. (2003). Chemistry. Shaped laser pulses as reagents. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5606), 525–527.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voss, R., & Nelemans, G. (2008). Discovery of the progenitor of the type Ia supernova 2007on. Nature, 451(7180), 802–804.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell, A., Wei, P., & Lim, W. A. (2015). Oscillatory stress stimulation uncovers an Achilles’ heel of the yeast MAPK signaling network. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6266), 1379–1383.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Berthier, L., Biroli, G., Bouchaud, J.-P., Cipelletti, L., El Masri, D., L’Hôte, D., … Pierno, M. (2005). Direct experimental evidence of a growing length scale accompanying the glass transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5755), 1797–1800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anandharamakrishnan, C., & Ishwarya, S. P. (2015). Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mutsvairo, B. (Ed.). (2016). Participatory Politics and Citizen Journalism in a Networked Africa: A Connected Continent. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerasimovskaya, E. V., Stenmark, K. R., & Yegutkin, G. G. (2010). Role of Purine-Converting Ecto-Enzymes in Angiogenic Phenotype of Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells of Chronically Hypoxic Calves. In E. Gerasimovskaya & E. Kaczmarek (Eds.), Extracellular ATP and Adenosine as Regulators of Endothelial Cell Function: Implications for Health and Disease (pp. 73–93). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 30). A Hot Bath Has Benefits Similar To Exercise. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students (No. GAO-11-839). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Exel, L. M. (2012). Applying database refactoring techniques to procedural SQL (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1998, August 11). Implants Are Giving New Voices To Patients. New York Times, p. F7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rabitz, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Rabitz, 2003; Voss & Nelemans, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voss & Nelemans, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Mitchell, Wei, & Lim, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Berthier et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Learning Difficulties
AbbreviationAust. J. Learn. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1940-4158
ISSN (online)1940-4166
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

Other styles