How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cox, A. L. (2015). MEDICINE. Global control of hepatitis C virus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6250), 790–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fuller, M. T., & Spradling, A. C. (2007). Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lim, M. L. M., Land, M. F., & Li, D. (2007). Sex-specific UV and fluorescence signals in jumping spiders. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5811), 481.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lovering, A. L., de Castro, L. H., Lim, D., & Strynadka, N. C. J. (2007). Structural insight into the transglycosylation step of bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5817), 1402–1405.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diver, D. A. (2013). Plasma Formulary for Physics, Astronomy, and Technology. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Rajamannan, N. M. (Ed.). (2013). Cardiac Valvular Medicine. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsikalas, F., Faleide, J. I., Werner, S. C., Torsvik, T., Gudlaugsson, S. T., & Eldholm, O. (2011). Impact Geophysics and Modelling. In F. Tsikalas, H. Dypvik, & M. Smelror (Eds.), The Mjølnir Impact Event and its Consequences: Geology and Geophysics of a Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous Marine Impact Event (pp. 75–137). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 17). Deep Sleep-Promoting Brain Region Discovered. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information Technology: FAA Has Many Investment Management Capabilities in Place, but More Oversight of Operational Systems Is Needed (GAO-04-822). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murdock, J. M. (2017). Lethe and the Twin Bodhisattvas of Forgiveness and Forgetfulness [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, June 2). Top Degrees for Homeownership. New York Times, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cox, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cox, 2015; Fuller & Spradling, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fuller & Spradling, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lim et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lovering et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Learning Difficulties
AbbreviationAust. J. Learn. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1940-4158
ISSN (online)1940-4166
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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