How to format your references using the Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Banda, E. (2002). Science in Europe. Implementing the European research area. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5554), 443.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn, S., & Joyner, A. L. (2005). In vivo analysis of quiescent adult neural stem cells responding to Sonic hedgehog. Nature, 437(7060), 894–897.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cremer, S., Sledge, M. F., & Heinze, J. (2002). Chemical mimicry: male ants disguised by the queen’s bouquet. Nature, 419(6910), 897.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Burns, K. H., Viveiros, M. M., Ren, Y., Wang, P., DeMayo, F. J., Frail, D. E., … Matzuk, M. M. (2003). Roles of NPM2 in chromatin and nucleolar organization in oocytes and embryos. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5619), 633–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiedenmannott, W. (2016). Industrielle Wasseraufbereitung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Cooper, K., & White, R. E. (Eds.). (2012). Qualitative Research in the Post-Modern Era: Contexts of Qualitative Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cortina, S., Mayer, N., Renault, A., & Barafort, B. (2014). Towards a Process Assessment Model for Management System Standards. In A. Mitasiunas, T. Rout, R. V. O’Connor, & A. Dorling (Eds.), Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 14th International Conference, SPICE 2014, Vilnius, Lithuania, November 4-6, 2014, Proceedings (pp. 36–47). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 5). It’s Time To Fix Our Outdated Guidelines For Human Vaccine Trials. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Contract Planning and Oversight Practices Were Ineffective Given the Challenges and Risks (No. GAO-14-824T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori, H. D. (2010). Working with Muslim children and families: A training program for child welfare social workers (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, June 27). Justices Uphold Basic Right To Choose Defense Lawyers. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javanainen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Eliopoulos, 2008; Schölkopf, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahn & Joyner, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cremer, Sledge, & Heinze, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (LeCouter et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of Learning Difficulties
AbbreviationAust. J. Learn. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1940-4158
ISSN (online)1940-4166
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Social Psychology

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