How to format your references using the Algorithmica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithmica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rustichini, A.: Neuroscience. Emotion and reason in making decisions. Science. 310, 1624–1625 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Alley, R.B., Joughin, I.: Climate change. Modeling ice-sheet flow. Science. 336, 551–552 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, J., Srinivasan, M.V., Zhang, S.: Olfaction: scent-triggered navigation in honeybees. Nature. 427, 411 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oliver, D., He, D.Z., Klöcker, N., Ludwig, J., Schulte, U., Waldegger, S., Ruppersberg, J.P., Dallos, P., Fakler, B.: Intracellular anions as the voltage sensor of prestin, the outer hair cell motor protein. Science. 292, 2340–2343 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sluga, H.: Wittgenstein. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Ohtsu, M. ed: Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics III: Industrial Applications and Dynamics of the Nano-Optical System. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Kornfilt, J.: DOM and Two Types of DSM in Turkish. In: Hoop, H. de and Swart, P. de (eds.) Differential Subject Marking. pp. 79–111. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithmica.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Man Claims He’s Going To Put On A Snake-Proof Suit And Let An Anaconda Swallow Him On Camera,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Direct Student Loans: Selected Characteristics of Participating Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1995)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vega Aguirre, J.C.: Study of small business leadership as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Voice of Calm, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithmica
ISSN (print)0178-4617
ISSN (online)1432-0541
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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