How to format your references using the Algorithmica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithmica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan, C.: Immunology. Catalytic antibody bridges innate and adaptive immunity. Science. 298, 2143–2144 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, W.-P., Yang, Z.: Earthquakes beneath the Himalayas and Tibet: evidence for strong lithospheric mantle. Science. 304, 1949–1952 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Geng, W.T., Wang, J.-S., Olson, G.B.: Comment on “Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system.” Science. 309, 1677; author reply 1677 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cvetkovic, A., Menon, A.L., Thorgersen, M.P., Scott, J.W., Poole, F.L., 2nd, Jenney, F.E., Jr, Lancaster, W.A., Praissman, J.L., Shanmukh, S., Vaccaro, B.J., Trauger, S.A., Kalisiak, E., Apon, J.V., Siuzdak, G., Yannone, S.M., Tainer, J.A., Adams, M.W.W.: Microbial metalloproteomes are largely uncharacterized. Nature. 466, 779–782 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padilla, E.: Substation Automation Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Zhang, H.: 4G Femtocells: Resource Allocation and Interference Management. Springer, New York, NY (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Cai, K., Wonham, W.M.: Case Study: Production Cell. In: Wonham, W.M. (ed.) Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems. pp. 103–126. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithmica.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Jupiter May One Day Be Visited By Floating “Windbots,”


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, J.A.: Principal stress analysis of rock fracture data from the Long Beach oil field, Los Angeles basin, California, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Galchen, R.: Nobody’s Fool, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithmica
ISSN (print)0178-4617
ISSN (online)1432-0541
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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