How to format your references using the Algorithmica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithmica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P.: Fields of dreams. Nature. 415, 4–5 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Warren, L.A., Kauffman, M.E.: Geoscience. Microbial geoengineers. Science. 299, 1027–1029 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kahn, S.E., Hull, R.L., Utzschneider, K.M.: Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 444, 840–846 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ouzounov, D.G., Ahmad, F.R., Müller, D., Venkataraman, N., Gallagher, M.T., Thomas, M.G., Silcox, J., Koch, K.W., Gaeta, A.L.: Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Science. 301, 1702–1704 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi, F.J., Kothari, V.: Introduction to Securitization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2008)
An edited book
Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., Wagner, R. eds: Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems V. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Recher, M., Lang, K.S.: Innate (Over)immunity and Adaptive Autoimmune Disease. In: Radbruch, A. and Lipsky, P.E. (eds.) Current Concepts in Autoimmunity and Chronic Inflammation. pp. 89–104. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithmica.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Fish That Haven’t Been Drinking Take Cues From Those That Have,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: College Debit Cards: Actions Needed to Address ATM Access, Student Choice, and Transparency. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steigner, T.: A study of cross -border takeovers: Examining the impact of national culture on internalization benefits, and the implications of early versus late -mover status for bidders and their rivals, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B.: Fourth Passer? Jets May Go Deep, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithmica
ISSN (print)0178-4617
ISSN (online)1432-0541
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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