How to format your references using the Algorithmica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algorithmica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, M.J.: RNA events. No end to nonsense. Science. 298, 370–371 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lutter, C.K., Lutter, R.: Fetal and early childhood undernutrition, mortality, and lifelong health. Science. 337, 1495–1499 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Talkington, M.W.T., Siuzdak, G., Williamson, J.R.: An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit. Nature. 438, 628–632 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mechsner, F., Kerzel, D., Knoblich, G., Prinz, W.: Perceptual basis of bimanual coordination. Nature. 414, 69–73 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willan, A.R., Briggs, A.H.: Statistical Analysis of Cost-effectiveness Data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Bourque, G., El-Mabrouk, N. eds: Comparative Genomics: RECOMB 2006 International Workshop, RCG 2006 Montreal, Canada, September 24-26, 2006 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Z.: Study on the Importance of Cultural Context Analysis in Machine Translation. In: Yin, Z., Pan, L., and Fang, X. (eds.) Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2013. pp. 29–35. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algorithmica.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Why Did Dinosaurs Avoid The Tropics For So Long?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Board Operations and Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill, L.: Unique forms of knowledge and curriculum in hip-hop pedagogy, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., Zezima, K.: Small City, Big Debt Problems, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgorithmica
ISSN (print)0178-4617
ISSN (online)1432-0541
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Computer Science Applications
Applied Mathematics

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