How to format your references using the Landscape and Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape and Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klemperer W (2001) Astronomy. The complex story of H2. Science 293:815–816
A journal article with 2 authors
Garcia CM, Ramirez E (2005) Evidence that sensory traps can evolve into honest signals. Nature 434:501–505
A journal article with 3 authors
Velev OD, Prevo BG, Bhatt KH (2003) On-chip manipulation of free droplets. Nature 426:515–516
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stassun KG, Mathieu RD, Cargile PA, et al (2008) Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of “identical twin” stars. Nature 453:1079–1082

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson RJ, Groundwater PW, Todd A, Worsley AJ (2012) Antibacterial Agents. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lehto M, Neittaanmäki P (eds) (2015) Cyber Security: Analytics, Technology and Automation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pereira C, Azari K (2015) Replantation of the Digits. In: Salyapongse AN, Poore SO, Afifi AM, Bentz ML (eds) Extremity Replantation: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 49–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape and Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Evans K (2017) NASA Confirms Emergency Spacewalk After Key Equipment Failure On The ISS. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Issues Concerning the National Materials Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980, Public Law 96-479. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chiu Y-YL (2012) Multicultural educational policies: A correlational investigation of cultural competencies and feelings of inclusion. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sulcas R (2014) Alla Sizova, Star Kirov Ballerina, 75. New York Times B19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Klemperer 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Klemperer 2001; Garcia and Ramirez 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garcia and Ramirez 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Stassun et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape and Ecological Engineering
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1860-1871
ISSN (online)1860-188X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles