How to format your references using the Landscape and Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape and Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins A (2004) Graduate journal: a tough challenge. Nature 427:378
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan GD, Crump MJC (2010) Cognitive illusions of authorship reveal hierarchical error detection in skilled typists. Science 330:683–686
A journal article with 3 authors
Mellor J, Nicoll RA, Schmitz D (2002) Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by presynaptic Ih channels. Science 295:143–147
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Johnson HP, Hutnak M, Dziak RP, et al (2000) Earthquake-induced changes in a hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca mid-ocean ridge. Nature 407:174–177

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Papadimitriou GI, Tsimoulas PA, Obaidat MS, Pomportsis AS (2005) Multiwavelength Optical LANs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Grabot B, Vallespir B, Gomes S, et al (eds) (2014) Advances in Production Management Systems. Innovative and Knowledge-Based Production Management in a Global-Local World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2014, Ajaccio, France, September 20-24, 2014, Proceedings, Part III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Choi H-J, Cohen AS, Bottge BA (2016) An Application of a Random Mixture Nominal Item Response Model for Investigating Instruction Effects. In: van der Ark LA, Bolt DM, Wang W-C, et al. (eds) Quantitative Psychology Research: The 80th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Beijing, 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape and Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Watch Live Feed As Asteroid Approaches Closer Than The Moon. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Telecommunications: Exposure and Testing Requirements for Mobile Phones Should Be Reassessed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kingsley SJ (2012) Preschool teachers’ perceptions of factors influencing their referral decisions for young children with severe behavior problems. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar F, et al (2006) That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times 14WC5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jenkins 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Jenkins 2004; Logan and Crump 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan and Crump 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape and Ecological Engineering
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1860-1871
ISSN (online)1860-188X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles