How to format your references using the Landscape and Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape and Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M (2011) Telomeres: All’s well that ends well. Nature 478:S13-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Labouriau R, Amorim A (2008) Comment on “An association between the kinship and fertility of human couples.” Science 322:1634; author reply 1634
A journal article with 3 authors
Legrand Y-M, van der Lee A, Barboiu M (2010) Single-crystal X-ray structure of 1,3-dimethylcyclobutadiene by confinement in a crystalline matrix. Science 329:299–302
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Weisheit M, Fähler S, Marty A, et al (2007) Electric field-induced modification of magnetism in thin-film ferromagnets. Science 315:349–351

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Modarres M, Amiri M, Jackson C (2017) Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Backert S (ed) (2016) Inflammasome Signaling and Bacterial Infections. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Martins VF, Kirner TG, Kirner C (2015) Subjective Usability Evaluation Criteria of Augmented Reality Applications. In: Shumaker R, Lackey S (eds) Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality: 7th International Conference, VAMR 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape and Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Evans K (2016) 27 Things You Didn’t Know Your Iphone Could Do. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Comments From The Copyright Office On GAO-10-428R (GAO-10-707SP), an E-supplement to GAO-10-428R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahler EB (2008) Defining career success in the 21st century: A narrative study of intentional work role transitions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2007) Parole Unlikely for Russian Oil Executive Jailed in Siberia. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Labouriau and Amorim 2008; Eisenstein 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Labouriau and Amorim 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Weisheit et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape and Ecological Engineering
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1860-1871
ISSN (online)1860-188X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles