How to format your references using the Landscape and Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Landscape and Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer NC (2006) Electrical activity in early neuronal development. Nature 444:707–712
A journal article with 2 authors
Kundu P, Pettersson S (2014) Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria. Nature 512:377–378
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldfarb DJ, Glasser BJ, Shinbrot T (2002) Shear instabilities in granular flows. Nature 415:302–305
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Marín O, Yaron A, Bagri A, et al (2001) Sorting of striatal and cortical interneurons regulated by semaphorin-neuropilin interactions. Science 293:872–875

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li P, Marrongelle K (2012) Having Success with NSF. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bilko NM, Fehse B, Ostertag W, et al (eds) (2008) Stem Cells and their Potential for Clinical Application. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Howard AM, Remy S, Hyuk Park C, et al (2009) Intelligent Robotics for Assistive Healthcare and Therapy. In: Sukhatme G (ed) The Path to Autonomous Robots: Essays in Honor of George A. Bekey. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 1–17

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Landscape and Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Gene For Temperature Sex Switch In Turtles Identified. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) DHS Research and Development: Science and Technology Directorate’s Test and Evaluation and Reorganization Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curtis KJ (2010) Mozambican national anthems: Memory, performance, and nation-building. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Shakespeare, Commandeered Afresh. New York Times AR28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitzer 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Spitzer 2006; Kundu and Pettersson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kundu and Pettersson 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Marín et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLandscape and Ecological Engineering
AbbreviationLandsc. Ecol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1860-1871
ISSN (online)1860-188X
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles