How to format your references using the BMC Medical Research Methodology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medical Research Methodology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lovett RA. Olympic talent. Nature. 2007;448:104.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rawlins D, Pickering K. Ancient chronology. Astronomical orientation of the pyramids. Nature. 2001;412:699–700.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Russell SH, Hancock MP, McCullough J. The pipeline. Benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Science. 2007;316:548–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Han SH, Cho FH, Song YK, Paulsen J, Song YQ, Kim YR, et al. Ultrafast 3D spin-echo acquisition improves Gadolinium-enhanced MRI signal contrast enhancement. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Liu S, Liu Y. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Harwood TM. Self-Help in Mental Health: A Critical Review. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Reiter D. The Monte Carlo Method for Particle Transport Problems. In: Fehske H, Schneider R, Weiße A, editors. Computational Many-Particle Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 141–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medical Research Methodology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch Two Astronauts Live On Their Spacewalk Outside The ISS. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/space/watch-two-astronauts-their-spacewalk-outside-iss-live/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Disability Assistance: Stronger Federal Oversight Could Help Assure Multiple Programs’ Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Subramanian K. Mechanisms and Effect of Microstructure on High Temperature Deformation of Gamma-TiAl Based Alloys. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. Deal Set to Provide Care For Research Chimps. New York Times. 2017;:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medical Research Methodology
AbbreviationBMC Med. Res. Methodol.
ISSN (online)1471-2288
ScopeEpidemiology
Health Informatics

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