How to format your references using the BMC Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Maller JL. Signal transduction. Fishing at the cell surface. Science. 2003;300:594–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Van Tuyl R, Pereltsvaig A. Comment on “Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.” Science. 2012;335:657; author reply 657.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pfingsten JS, Costantino DA, Kieft JS. Structural basis for ribosome recruitment and manipulation by a viral IRES RNA. Science. 2006;314:1450–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hochberg LR, Serruya MD, Friehs GM, Mukand JA, Saleh M, Caplan AH, et al. Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia. Nature. 2006;442:164–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Robyns B, François B, Delille G, Saudemont C. Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Shek DTL, Chung P, editors. Promoting Service Leadership Qualities in University Students: The Case of Hong Kong. 1st ed. 2015. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Singh H, Pongubala JMR, Medina KL. Gene Regulatory Networks that Orchestrate the Development of B Lymphocyte Precursors. In: Gupta S, Alt F, Cooper M, Melchers F, Rajewsky K, editors. Mechanisms of Lymphocyte Activation and Immune Regulation XI: B Cell Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 57–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Single Therapy Session Cures 73% Of Insomniacs. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hatton H. How Rural Elementary Building Principals Conceptualize the Programs in Their Schools, the Processes of Connecting Students to Programs, and Their Leadership Role in Doing So. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Another Exclusive Yields No. 1 Album. New York Times. 2016;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationBMC Infect. Dis.
ISSN (online)1471-2334
ScopeInfectious Diseases

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