How to format your references using the BMC Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Johnstone RA. The evolution of inaccurate mimics. Nature. 2002;418:524–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Backwell PRY, Jennions MD. Animal behaviour: coalition among male fiddler crabs. Nature. 2004;430:417.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mercader J, Panger M, Boesch C. Excavation of a chimpanzee stone tool site in the African rainforest. Science. 2002;296:1452–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. D’Angelo MA, Anderson DJ, Richard E, Hetzer MW. Nuclear pores form de novo from both sides of the nuclear envelope. Science. 2006;312:440–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Pokorski M, editor. Respiratory Contagion. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Canetti R, Fuller B, Paneth O, Reyzin L, Smith A. Reusable Fuzzy Extractors for Low-Entropy Distributions. In: Fischlin M, Coron J-S, editors. Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2016: 35th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Vienna, Austria, May 8-12, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 117–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Genetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Ancient Rhino Cousin Reorganizes Mammalian Family Tree. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ancient-rhino-cousin-reorganizes-mammalian-family-tree/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee S. The Influence of Product Involvement and Fan Identification on Response to Team Sponsors’ Products. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Norris M. FROM BROTHER TO SISTER. New York Times. 2010;:MM66.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Genetics
AbbreviationBMC Genet.
ISSN (online)1471-2156
ScopeGenetics
Genetics(clinical)

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