How to format your references using the BMC Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. Play it again, robot. Science. 2008;319:1613.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fromherz P, Voelker M. Comment on “Detection, stimulation, and inhibition of neuronal signals with high-density nanowire transistor arrays.” Science. 2009;323:1429; author reply 1429.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Strick TR, Croquette V, Bensimon D. Single-molecule analysis of DNA uncoiling by a type II topoisomerase. Nature. 2000;404:901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sekine T, Kakuta T, Nakamura T, Kobayashi Y, Takashima Y, Harada A. A macroscopic reaction: direct covalent bond formation between materials using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Burnham D, Skilleås OM. The Aesthetics of Wine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kümmel G, Giegerich B, editors. The Armed Forces: Towards a Post-Interventionist Era? Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wayne MA, McCoy AM, Utarnachitt RB. Emergency Medical Services and Atrial Fibrillation. In: Peacock WF, Clark CL, editors. Short Stay Management of Atrial Fibrillation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Genetics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cartwheeling Spider Discovered. IFLScience. 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/cartwheeling-spider-discovered/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal Coordination Efforts Could Be Further Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Corbets JB. Evaluating System Architecture Quality and Architecting Team Performance Using Information Quality Theory. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwartz J. Forecast for Hurricanes Is Stormier Than Normal. New York Times. 2017;:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Genetics
AbbreviationBMC Genet.
ISSN (online)1471-2156
ScopeGenetics
Genetics(clinical)

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