How to format your references using the Materials Today Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
U. Alon, Biological networks: the tinkerer as an engineer, Science. 301 (2003) 1866–1867.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.H. Nadeau, A.M. Dudley, Genetics. Systems genetics, Science. 331 (2011) 1015–1016.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.K. Marhas, J.N. Goswami, A.M. Davis, Short-lived nuclides in hibonite grains from Murchison: evidence for solar system evolution, Science. 298 (2002) 2182–2185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.K. Geim, S.V. Dubonos, I.V. Grigorieva IV, K.S. Novoselov, F.M. Peeters, V.A. Schweigert, Non-quantized penetration of magnetic field in the vortex state of superconductors, Nature. 407 (2000) 55–57.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Bertolini, B. Elsener, P. Pedeferri, R.B. Polder, Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2003.
An edited book
D. Sengupta, ed., Recent Trends in Modelling of Environmental Contaminants, Springer India, New Delhi, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Gaskó, R.I. Lung, D. Dumitrescu, Strong Berge and Strong Berge Pareto Equilibrium Detection Using an Evolutionary Approach, in: R.-E. Precup, S. Kovács, S. Preitl, E.M. Petriu (Eds.), Applied Computational Intelligence in Engineering and Information Technology: Revised and Selected Papers from the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics SACI 2011, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 51–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Physics.

Blog post
J. Fang, 240-Million-Year-Old “Grandfather Turtle” Was Just Starting to Have a Shell, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: Impacts of Utility Relocations on Highway and Bridge Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.N. Meyertholen, Blurring the lines: The invention of abstract in German literature since 1800, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B.Y.M.A. Kelly, For French, Apprehension About Travel to U.S, New York Times. (2003) W1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Physics
ISSN (print)2542-5293

Other styles