How to format your references using the BIT Numerical Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIT Numerical Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zoghbi, H.Y.: Postnatal neurodevelopmental disorders: meeting at the synapse? Science. 302, 826–830 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wennerås, C., Wold, A.: A chair of one’s own. Nature. 408, 647 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietz, H., Douglas, S.M., Shih, W.M.: Folding DNA into twisted and curved nanoscale shapes. Science. 325, 725–730 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Polonia, A., Bonatti, E., Camerlenghi, A., Lucchi, R.G., Panieri, G., Gasperini, L.: Mediterranean megaturbidite triggered by the AD 365 Crete earthquake and tsunami. Sci. Rep. 3, 1285 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McEvily, A.J.: Metal Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Pelta, D.A., Krasnogor, N., Dumitrescu, D., Chira, C., Lung, R. eds: Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2011). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Viggiani, G.: Mechanisms of localized deformation in geomaterials: an experimental insight using full-field measurement techniques. In: Kolymbas, D. and Viggiani, G. (eds.) Mechanics of Natural Solids. pp. 105–125. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIT Numerical Mathematics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Researchers Find Fossil Fragments Of World’s Oldest Flowering Plant


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Managing Host Country Contracting Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, S.L.: Ninth grade transition: Best practices for a successful transition to high school, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Tabarrok, A., Rajagopalan, S.: Private Cities, Open to All, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBIT Numerical Mathematics
ISSN (print)0006-3835
ISSN (online)1572-9125
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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