How to format your references using the BIT Numerical Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIT Numerical Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C.: The future of science will soon be upon us. Nature. 524, 137 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Czakó, G., Bowman, J.M.: Dynamics of the reaction of methane with chlorine atom on an accurate potential energy surface. Science. 334, 343–346 (2011)
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis, S.J., Caldeira, K., Matthews, H.D.: Future CO2 emissions and climate change from existing energy infrastructure. Science. 329, 1330–1333 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hartschuh, A., Pedrosa, H.N., Novotny, L., Krauss, T.D.: Simultaneous fluorescence and Raman scattering from single carbon nanotubes. Science. 301, 1354–1356 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards, A., Dafydd, H.: Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Kaufman, H.L., Wolchok, J.D. eds: General Principles of Tumor Immunotherapy: Basic and Clinical Applications of Tumor Immunology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Chesney, M., Gheyssens, J., Pana, A.C., Taschini, L.: Economic Growth and the Environment. In: Gheyssens, J., Pana, A.C., and Taschini, L. (eds.) Environmental Finance and Investments. pp. 73–101. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIT Numerical Mathematics.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Chimpanzees Use Fishing Rods To Gather Algae From Rivers,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gruhl, D.K.: Santa Rosa Adopt-A-Grandparent Plus program: A grant proposal project, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gelles, D., de la MERCED, M.J.: Torch Passes At Carlyle As a Titan Steps Aside, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBIT Numerical Mathematics
ISSN (print)0006-3835
ISSN (online)1572-9125
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

Other styles