How to format your references using the BIT Numerical Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIT Numerical Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patel, A.D.: Science & music: talk of the tone. Nature. 453, 726–727 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mittermaier, A., Kay, L.E.: New tools provide new insights in NMR studies of protein dynamics. Science. 312, 224–228 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Saika-Voivod, I., Poole, P.H., Sciortino, F.: Fragile-to-strong transition and polyamorphism in the energy landscape of liquid silica. Nature. 412, 514–517 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, W., Du, M., Gu, D., Zhu, L., Chu, H., Tong, N., Zhang, Z., Xu, Z., Wang, M.: MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism is associated with colorectal cancer risk. Sci. Rep. 4, 4851 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wootton, R.J., Smith, C.: Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Croci, E. ed: The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements: Design, Implementation and Evaluation Issues. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
Schlich, B., Noll, T., Brauer, J., Brutschy, L.: Reduction of Interrupt Handler Executions for Model Checking Embedded Software. In: Namjoshi, K., Zeller, A., and Ziv, A. (eds.) Hardware and Software: Verification and Testing: 5th International Haifa Verification Conference, HVC 2009, Haifa, Israel, October 19-22, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 5–20. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIT Numerical Mathematics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Brain Abnormalities Discovered in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Core Competencies in Financial Management for Information Technology Personnel Implementing Financial Systems in the Federal Government. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kent, L.: Justification-Suppression of Gender and Race Bias in Hiring: The Impact of Accountability, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J.: The Fighter and the Fight, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBIT Numerical Mathematics
ISSN (print)0006-3835
ISSN (online)1572-9125
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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