How to format your references using the BIT Numerical Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BIT Numerical Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyndall, G.: Chemistry. Vibrational excitation can control tropospheric chemistry. Science. 337, 1046–1047 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lillard, A., Else-Quest, N.: The early years. Evaluating Montessori education. Science. 313, 1893–1894 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Walden, H., Podgorski, M.S., Schulman, B.A.: Insights into the ubiquitin transfer cascade from the structure of the activating enzyme for NEDD8. Nature. 422, 330–334 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Delgado, M.R., Schotter, A., Ozbay, E.Y., Phelps, E.A.: Understanding overbidding: using the neural circuitry of reward to design economic auctions. Science. 321, 1849–1852 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morton, A., Mengersen, K., Whitby, M., Playford, G.: Statistical Methods for Hospital Monitoring with R. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK (2013)
An edited book
Pries-Heje, J., Venable, J., Bunker, D., Russo, N.L., DeGross, J.I. eds: Human Benefit through the Diffusion of Information Systems Design Science Research: IFIP WG 8.2/8.6 International Working Conference, Perth, Australia, March 30 – April 1, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Togelius, J., Shaker, N., Dormans, J.: Grammars and L-systems with applications to vegetation and levels. In: Togelius, J. and Nelson, M.J. (eds.) Procedural Content Generation in Games. pp. 73–98. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BIT Numerical Mathematics.

Blog post
Hale, T.: This Swallowable Origami Robot Can Retrieve Stuff From Your Stomach,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Impacts of Education Reform. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1989)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M.C.: The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Weigh In on Use Of Tapes and Transcripts, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBIT Numerical Mathematics
ISSN (print)0006-3835
ISSN (online)1572-9125
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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