How to format your references using the Biotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spinrad, N. 2000. New ice age, or just cold feet? Nature 405: 623.
A journal article with 2 authors
van’t Veer, L. J., and R. Bernards. 2008. Enabling personalized cancer medicine through analysis of gene-expression patterns. Nature 452: 564–570.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samokhvalov, I. M., N. I. Samokhvalova, and S.-I. Nishikawa. 2007. Cell tracing shows the contribution of the yolk sac to adult haematopoiesis. Nature 446: 1056–1061.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Kiehl, S., S. C. Herkt, A. M. Richter, L. Fuhrmann, N. El-Nikhely, W. Seeger, R. Savai, and R. H. Dammann. 2014. ABCB4 is frequently epigenetically silenced in human cancers and inhibits tumor growth. Sci. Rep. 4: 6899.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure. 1993. Particle Size Classifiers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fulop, T., C. Franceschi, K. Hirokawa, and G. Pawelec eds. 2009. Handbook on Immunosenescence: Basic Understanding and Clinical Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hecht, M., and J. Harting. 2008. Structural Transitions in Colloidal Suspensions. In W. E. Nagel, D. Kröner, and M. Resch (Eds.) High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering `07: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2007. pp. 45–65, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotropica.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. How We Caught A Glimpse Of A Supermassive Black Hole Having A Meal. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denny, H. M. 2012. Impact of Occupational Health Interventions in Indonesia. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 2017. Returning to Broadway on Heavier Wings. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spinrad 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Spinrad 2000, van’t Veer & Bernards 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van’t Veer & Bernards 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiehl et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotropica
ISSN (print)0006-3606
ISSN (online)1744-7429
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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