How to format your references using the Biotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manabe, T. 2002. Does BDNF have pre- or postsynaptic targets? Science 295: 1651–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nagib, D. A., and D. W. C. MacMillan. 2011. Trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes by means of photoredox catalysis. Nature 480: 224–228.
A journal article with 3 authors
González-Gutiérrez, J., J. L. Carrillo-Estrada, and J. C. Ruiz-Suárez. 2014. Penetration of granular projectiles into a water target. Sci. Rep. 4: 6762.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Liu, Y., W. Hu, Y. Murakawa, J. Yin, G. Wang, M. Landthaler, and J. Yan. 2013. Cold-induced RNA-binding proteins regulate circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation. Sci. Rep. 3: 2054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. 2014. MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Dignum, F., C. Brom, K. Hindriks, M. Beer, and D. Richards eds. 2013. Cognitive Agents for Virtual Environments: First International Workshop, CAVE 2012, Held at AAMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fox, J. J., and S. Bartholomae. 2008. Financial Education and Program Evaluation. In J. J. Xiao (Ed.) Handbook of Consumer Finance Research. pp. 47–68, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotropica.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2015. Why Was A Child’s “5+5+5=15” Answer Marked As Incorrect? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Information Technology: Architecture Needed to Guide NASA’s Financial Management Modernization. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darvish, H. 2015. Smart Power Grid Synchronization with Nonlinear Estimation. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Donohue, J. J., Iii, and M. Schoening. 2017. The Grim Reaper of Alabama. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manabe 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Manabe 2002, Nagib & MacMillan 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nagib & MacMillan 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotropica
ISSN (print)0006-3606
ISSN (online)1744-7429
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles