How to format your references using the Biotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardcastle, M. J. 2011. Astronomy. Revealing the gamma-ray jet in a black hole binary. Science 332: 429–430.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vecchi, G. A., and G. Villarini. 2014. Atmosphere. Next season’s hurricanes. Science 343: 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogata, S., J. Li, and S. Yip. 2002. Ideal pure shear strength of aluminum and copper. Science 298: 807–811.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Bonn, D. A., J. C. Wynn, B. W. Gardner, Y. J. Lin, R. Liang, W. N. Hardy, J. R. Kirtley, and K. A. Moler. 2001. A limit on spin-charge separation in high-Tc superconductors from the absence of a vortex-memory effect. Nature 414: 887–889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sturges, R. H., Jr. 2014. Practical Field Robotics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chacon, R. J., and D. H. Dye eds. 2007. The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamooni, H., N. Chavoshi, and A. Mueen. 2016. On URL Changes and Handovers in Social Media. In E. Spiro and Y.-Y. Ahn (Eds.) Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 58–74, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotropica.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. Schrodinger’s Algae Control Quantum Behavior. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Computerized Hospital Medical Information Systems Need Further Evaluation To Ensure Benefits From Huge Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, P. M. 2012. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010. Setting a New Standard for a Long-Beleaguered Franchise. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardcastle 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hardcastle 2011, Vecchi & Villarini 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vecchi & Villarini 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bonn et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotropica
ISSN (print)0006-3606
ISSN (online)1744-7429
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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