How to format your references using the Biotropica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotropica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R. A. 2000. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Most-Common Meteorites Find a Home Among the Asteroids. Science 288: 1714–1715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghazanfar, A. A., and N. K. Logothetis. 2003. Neuroperception: facial expressions linked to monkey calls. Nature 423: 937–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, D. M., S. I. H. Tillery, and A. B. Schwartz. 2002. Direct cortical control of 3D neuroprosthetic devices. Science 296: 1829–1832.
A journal article with 20 or more authors
Nakashiba, T., J. Z. Young, T. J. McHugh, D. L. Buhl, and S. Tonegawa. 2008. Transgenic inhibition of synaptic transmission reveals role of CA3 output in hippocampal learning. Science 319: 1260–1264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu, P. 2005. Wideband TDD. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Reinhard, T., and F. Larkin eds. 2013. Corneal Disease: Recent Developments in Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
González-Jiménez, E., and G. E. Mullin. 2014. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Etiopathogenic Analysis. In G. E. Mullin, L. J. Cheskin, and L. E. Matarese (Eds.) Integrative Weight Management: A Guide for Clinicians. pp. 47–59, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotropica.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2016. Why Has Japan’s Massacre Of Disabled Gone Unnoticed? For Answers, Look To The Past. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Federal Ships: Policy Changes in the Disposal of Surplus Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer-Duffield, J. 2010. Beliefs and uses of tagging among undergraduates. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017. Mets Sign Six, Including deGrom, Harvey and Familia; Flores Waits for More. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000, Ghazanfar & Logothetis 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghazanfar & Logothetis 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakashiba et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotropica
ISSN (print)0006-3606
ISSN (online)1744-7429
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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