How to format your references using the Biotechnology Progress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Progress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rempe G. Quantum optics. A photon steers a photon with an atom. Science. 2014;345(6199):871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shchukin D, Möhwald H. Materials science. A coat of many functions. Science. 2013;341(6153):1458-1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pielke R Jr, Wigley T, Green C. Dangerous assumptions. Nature. 2008;452(7187):531-532.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Khakh BS, Zhou X, Sydes J, Galligan JJ, Lester HA. State-dependent cross-inhibition between transmitter-gated cation channels. Nature. 2000;406(6794):405-410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa TF. Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Lefere P, Gryspeerdt S, eds. Virtual Colonoscopy: A Practical Guide. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Wawrzik T, Ludwig F, Schilling M. Magnetic Particle Imaging: Exploring Particle Mobility. In: Buzug TM, Borgert J, eds. Magnetic Particle Imaging: A Novel SPIO Nanoparticle Imaging Technique. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer; 2012:21-25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Progress.

Blog post
Davis J. Scotland Generated More Wind Power Than It Used For An Entire Day. IFLScience. Published August 11, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Should Consider Limiting and/or Charging User Fees for Civilian Consultations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ren H. Modification and Characterization of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons for Resorcinol Removal. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Fond Paean Kicks Off a High-Profile Run. New York Times. September 19, 2016:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Progress
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Prog.
ISSN (print)8756-7938
ISSN (online)1520-6033

Other styles