How to format your references using the Biotechnology Progress citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Progress. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grosjean M. Mid-Holocene climate in the south-central Andes: humid or dry? Science. 2001;292(5526):2391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kioussis D, Georgopoulos K. Epigenetic flexibility underlying lineage choices in the adaptive immune system. Science. 2007;317(5838):620-622.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bylander J, Duty T, Delsing P. Current measurement by real-time counting of single electrons. Nature. 2005;434(7031):361-364.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Genin A, Jaffe JS, Reef R, Richter C, Franks PJS. Swimming against the flow: a mechanism of zooplankton aggregation. Science. 2005;308(5723):860-862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moorhouse M, Barry P. Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Bhushan B, Kawata S, Fuchs H, eds. Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Horányi M, Sternovsky Z, Lankton M, Dumont C, Gagnard S, Gathright D, Grün E, Hansen D, James D, Kempf S, Lamprecht B, Srama R, Szalay JR, Wright G. The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) Onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission. In: Elphic RC, Russell CT, eds. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission (LADEE). Springer International Publishing; 2015:93-113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Progress.

Blog post
Andrew E. Imposter Nanosponges Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Infection. IFLScience. Published May 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made to Develop Business Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rendleman AJ. Energetics of Physiological Plasticity during Larval Development of the Sand Dollar, Dendraster Excentricus. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Facebook Status? In Town and Wondering What to Do. New York Times. May 7, 2009:F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Progress
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Prog.
ISSN (print)8756-7938
ISSN (online)1520-6033

Other styles