How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Kolaja. “Drug discovery: computer model predicts side effects”. Nature. 2012. 486(7403): 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Headlam, M. Brown. “Comment on ‘The geometry of musical chords’”. Science. 2007. 315(5810): 330; author reply 330.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Winn, D. Rusin, C.S. Kochanek. “The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar”. Nature. 2004. 427(6975): 613–615.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
R.-Q. Su, Y.-C. Lai, X. Wang, Y. Do. “Uncovering hidden nodes in complex networks in the presence of noise”. Sci. Rep. 2014. 4: 3944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.M. Kondoz. Digital Speech. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
J. Filipe, J. Cordeiro, eds. Web Information Systems and Technologies: 7th International Conference, WEBIST 2011, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, May 6-9, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
T.R. Green. “Linking Climate Change and Groundwater”. In: A.J. Jakeman, O. Barreteau, R.J. Hunt, J.-D. Rinaudo, A. Ross, editors. Integrated Groundwater Management: Concepts, Approaches and Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016. Pp. 97–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew. “Semi-Synthetic Organism Uses New DNA Bases”. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2014. [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Greater Emphasis on Information Resource Management Is Needed at the Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.M. Anderson. Persistent Genomic Consequences of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Measured in Adolescent Rat Brain. [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Goodman. Profiles in Caution. New York Times. 2017. BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0003-7028
ISSN (online)1943-3530

Other styles