How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Boyle. “Social science. A U.K. view on the U.S. attack on social sciences”. Science. 2013. 341(6147): 719.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Shinbrot, F.J. Muzzio. “Noise to order”. Nature. 2001. 410(6825): 251–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.J. Van Tonder, M.J. Lyons, Y. Ejima. “Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden”. Nature. 2002. 419(6905): 359–360.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
J.R. Meyerson, P. Rao, J. Kumar, S. Chittori, S. Banerjee, J. Pierson, et al. “Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports”. Sci. Rep. 2014. 4: 7084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Lowman. A Practical Guide to Analytics for Governments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
A.T. Azar, S. Vaidyanathan, eds. Chaos Modeling and Control Systems Design. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Solymár, F. Mádai, D. Papanastassiou. “Effect of Bauxite Microstructure on Beneficiation and Processing”. In: D. Donaldson, B.E. Raahauge, editors. Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 1 Alumina and Bauxite. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016. Pp. 37–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew. “Hearing Ghost Voices Relies On Pseudoscience And Fallibility Of Human Perception”. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015. [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Further Testing of IRS’ Automated Taxpayer Service Systems Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Cline. Criminal faces: Clinical experiences of forensic artists. [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Oestreich. Grand and Beloved (Sometimes Hated). New York Times. 2017. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0003-7028
ISSN (online)1943-3530

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