How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.C. Horton. “Boundary disputes”. Nature. 2000. 406(6796): 565.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Owusu-Ansah, U. Banerjee. “Reactive oxygen species prime Drosophila haematopoietic progenitors for differentiation”. Nature. 2009. 461(7263): 537–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.L. Piscitelli, H. Krishnamurthy, E. Gouaux. “Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site”. Nature. 2010. 468(7327): 1129–1132.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
B. Worm, M. Sandow, A. Oschlies, H.K. Lotze, R.A. Myers. “Global patterns of predator diversity in the open oceans”. Science. 2005. 309(5739): 1365–1369.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Gregory. Counterparty Credit Risk and Credit Value Adjustment. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2012.
An edited book
P. Thiemann, ed. Programming Languages and Systems: 25th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2016, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2016, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, April 2–8, 2016, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Truong, M. Palmer, N. Bansal, B. Bhandari. “Methodologies to Vary Milk Fat Globule Size”. In: M. Palmer, N. Bansal, B. Bhandari, editors. Effect of Milk Fat Globule Size on the Physical Functionality of Dairy Products. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016. Pp. 15–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy.

Blog post
K. Hamilton. “Three Of Namibia’s Most Famous Lion Family Were Poisoned – Why?” IFLScience. IFLScience, 2016. [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Vocational Education: Status in School Year 1990-91 and Early Signs of Change at Secondary Level. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Kolakoski. The appeal to be heard and the trope of listening in classic film and African American literature. [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Clooney, J. Prendergast, A. Kumar. Sudan’s Rape of Darfur. New York Times. 2015. A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0003-7028
ISSN (online)1943-3530

Other styles