How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I. Sethmann. “Materials science. Creating flexible calcite fibers with proteins”. Science. 2013. 339(6125): 1281–1282.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.J. Peppe, D.L. Royer. “ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE. Can climate feel the pressure?” Science. 2015. 348(6240): 1210–1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
I.R. Gilbert, P.G. Jarvis, H. Smith. “Proximity signal and shade avoidance differences between early and late successional trees”. Nature. 2001. 411(6839): 792–795.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
R. Vanacore, A.-J.L. Ham, M. Voehler, C.R. Sanders, T.P. Conrads, T.D. Veenstra, et al. “A sulfilimine bond identified in collagen IV”. Science. 2009. 325(5945): 1230–1234.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.A. Greiman. Megaproject Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
C. Witt, ed. Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and the Self. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Chaudhuri, U. Mukhopadhyay. “FDI, SEZ and Agriculture”. In: U. Mukhopadhyay, editor. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Evaluation. Springer India, New Delhi, 2014. Pp. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew. “From Mercury To Pluto: The Year Ahead In Planetary Exploration”. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015. [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Limited Improvement in Bridge Conditions over the Past Decade, but Financial Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.A. Mackay. Title I funding allocation of reserve funds after increased standards for academic proficiency under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley. The Goal Is to Win, and to Be Heard. New York Times. 2016. C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0003-7028
ISSN (online)1943-3530

Other styles