How to format your references using the Applied Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Cuntz. “Carbon cycle: a dent in carbon’s gold standard”. Nature. 2011. 477(7366): 547–548.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Szathmáry, S. Számadó. “Being human: language: a social history of words”. Nature. 2008. 456(7218): 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.B. Croon, J.K. Hillier, J.G. Sclater. “Comment on ‘Mantle flow drives the subsidence of oceanic plates’”. Science. 2011. 331(6020): 1011; author reply 1011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
H. Watanabe, J. Vriens, J. Prenen, G. Droogmans, T. Voets, B. Nilius. “Anandamide and arachidonic acid use epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to activate TRPV4 channels”. Nature. 2003. 424(6947): 434–438.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.A. Wiens. Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
M. Terazima, M. Kataoka, R. Ueoka, Y. Okamoto, eds. Molecular Science of Fluctuations Toward Biological Functions. 1st ed. 2016. Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
L.M. Zurk, S. Schecklman. “Terahertz Scattering”. In: K.-E. Peiponen, A. Zeitler, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, editors. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013. Pp. 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Spectroscopy.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan. “You Can Now Vote To Officially Name Exoplanets For The First Time”. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015. [Oct 30 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: DOD Delivering New Generations of Satellites, but Space System Acquisition Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Bai. High Temperature Proton-Exchange and Fuel Processing Membranes for Fuel Cells and Other Applications. [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow. . . . And the Upper West Side Loses Its Plain-Vanilla Grocery. New York Times. 2001. 1410.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Spectroscopy
AbbreviationAppl. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)0003-7028
ISSN (online)1943-3530

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