How to format your references using the Biotechnology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zurek WH (2001) Sub-Planck structure in phase space and its relevance for quantum decoherence. Nature 412:712–717
A journal article with 2 authors
Hörber JKH, Miles MJ (2003) Scanning probe evolution in biology. Science 302:1002–1005
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishizawa N, Setoguchi H, Yanagisawa K (2013) Structural evolution of calcite at high temperatures: phase V unveiled. Sci Rep 3:2832
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kunze A, Bally M, Höök F, Larson G (2013) Equilibrium-fluctuation-analysis of single liposome binding events reveals how cholesterol and Ca2+ modulate glycosphingolipid trans-interactions. Sci Rep 3:1452

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy T (2012) Electromagnetism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ganty P, Loreti M (eds) (2016) Trustworthy Global Computing: 10th International Symposium, TGC 2015 Madrid, Spain, August 31 – September 1, 2015 Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pongracz M, Spéder Z (2008) Attitudes Towards Forms of Partnership. In: Höhn C, Avramov D, Kotowska IE (eds) People, Population Change and Policies: Lessons from the Population Policy Acceptance Study Vol. 1: Family Change. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 93–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Letters.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Watch Two Black Mambas Get Into A Twisting Fight For Dominance. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Methodology Transfer Paper 3. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salmons I (2017) Best Practices for Managing Burnout in Attorneys. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser B, Walsh MW (2016) Ramapo Official Charged in Securities Fraud Case. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zurek 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Zurek 2001; Hörber and Miles 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hörber and Miles 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kunze et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Letters
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0141-5492
ISSN (online)1573-6776
General Medicine

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