How to format your references using the Biotechnology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilmut I (2012) Retrospective. Keith Campbell (1954-2012). Science 338:1553
A journal article with 2 authors
Karkazis K, Jordan-Young R (2015) Science and society. Debating a testosterone “sex gap.” Science 348:858–860
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee CC, Hu Y, Ribbe MW (2010) Vanadium nitrogenase reduces CO. Science 329:642
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yaginuma H, Kawai S, Tabata KV, et al (2014) Diversity in ATP concentrations in a single bacterial cell population revealed by quantitative single-cell imaging. Sci Rep 4:6522

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Basset P, Blokhina E, Galayko D (2016) Electrostatic Kinetic Energy Harvesting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Chetty M, Ngom A, Ahmad S (eds) (2008) Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: Third IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2008, Melbourne, Australia, October 15-17, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Korolev GV, Mogilevich MM (2009) Kinetic Features of Three-Dimensional Free-Radical Copolymerization. In: Mogilevich MM (ed) Three-Dimensional Free-Radical Polymerization: Cross-Linked and Hyper-Branched Polymers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 111–128

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Letters.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Two Oddly Adorable Baby Flamingos Are Welcomed To Columbus Zoo. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Space Acquisitions: GAO Assessment of DOD Responsive Launch Report. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean DO (2012) A discrete-time multiple event process survival mixture (MEPSUM) model for investigating the order and timing of multiple non-repeatable events. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker AL, McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Bullet in Bronx Takes a Detour, Turning Deadly. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilmut 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Wilmut 2012; Karkazis and Jordan-Young 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karkazis and Jordan-Young 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Yaginuma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Letters
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0141-5492
ISSN (online)1573-6776
General Medicine

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