How to format your references using the Biotechnology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seiradakis JH (2000) Pulsar astronomy. Older than they look. Nature 406:139–140
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips P, Balatsky AV (2007) Physics. Cracking the supersolid. Science 316:1435–1436
A journal article with 3 authors
Navarro-González R, McKay CP, Mvondo DN (2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for Archaean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412:61–64
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu J, Zou R, Wang Q, et al (2014) A peptide probe for the detection of neurokinin-1 receptor by disaggregation enhanced fluorescence and magnetic resonance signals. Sci Rep 4:6487

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen ZN, Chia MYW (2006) Broadband Planar Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Merle J-C (ed) (2013) Spheres of Global Justice: Volume 1 Global Challenges to Liberal Democracy. Political Participation, Minorities and Migrations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Wachinger C, Yigitsoy M, Navab N (2010) Manifold Learning for Image-Based Breathing Gating with Application to 4D Ultrasound. In: Jiang T, Navab N, Pluim JPW, Viergever MA (eds) Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2010: 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 26–33

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Letters.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) 3D-Printed Ovaries Could Be Future of Fertility Treatment, After Successfull Trials In Mice. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Abstracts of Reports and Testimony: Fiscal Year 2000. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen T (2012) Nail technician students’ awareness of some health effects of long-term exposure to chemicals used in nail salons and their understanding of health protection. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2016) Unshaken by Her Low Ranking, Wozniacki Easily Defeats Keys. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seiradakis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seiradakis 2000; Phillips and Balatsky 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillips and Balatsky 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Letters
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0141-5492
ISSN (online)1573-6776
General Medicine

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