How to format your references using the Biotechnology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotechnology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruttimann J (2007) Cell mates. Nature 450:756–757
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor RM, Kenny PJ (2015) Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems. Nature 520:168–169
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin X, Clark AC, Chan MHW (2007) Probable heat capacity signature of the supersolid transition. Nature 449:1025–1028
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Carreiras M, Seghier ML, Baquero S, et al (2009) An anatomical signature for literacy. Nature 461:983–986

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin WC (2016) Resistivity Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Henderson-Sellers B (2014) Situational Method Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Maciá-Fernández G, Díaz-Verdejo JE, García-Teodoro P (2006) Low Rate DoS Attack to Monoprocess Servers. In: Clark JA, Paige RF, Polack FAC, Brooke PJ (eds) Security in Pervasive Computing: Third International Conference, SPC 2006, York, UK, April 18-21, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–57

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotechnology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 5 Unsolved Mysteries of Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Financial Crisis Threatens Continued Viability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fails JA (2009) Mobile collaboration for young children: Reading and creating stories. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mazzetti M, Hubbard B (2016) Rise of Young Prince Shatters Decades of Saudi Royal Tradition. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruttimann 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ruttimann 2007; O’Connor and Kenny 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor and Kenny 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Carreiras et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotechnology Letters
AbbreviationBiotechnol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0141-5492
ISSN (online)1573-6776
General Medicine

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