How to format your references using the BioSocieties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioSocieties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, D. (2015) The problem with platinum. Nature 527(7579), S218-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arenkiel, B.R. & Ehlers, M.D. (2009) Molecular genetics and imaging technologies for circuit-based neuroanatomy. Nature 461(7266), 900–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, A., Wu, B. & Wang, L. (2014) Cooperation with both synergistic and local interactions can be worse than each alone. Scientific reports 4, 5536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Giorgi, C. et al. (2010) PML regulates apoptosis at endoplasmic reticulum by modulating calcium release. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330(6008), 1247–1251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunne, R.A. (2006) A Statistical Approach to Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
De Paolis, L.T. & Mongelli, A. eds. (2016) Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, and Computer Graphics: Third International Conference, AVR 2016, Lecce, Italy, June 15-18, 2016. Proceedings, Part II, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pedamallu, C.S., Özdamar, L. & Csendes, T. (2007) An Interval Partitioning Approach for Continuous Constrained Optimization. In: A. Törn & J. Žilinskas (eds.) Models and Algorithms for Global Optimization: Essays Dedicated to Antanas Žilinskas on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday. Optimization and Its Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioSocieties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Could We Grow Crops In Space? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, T.F. (2014) Evaluation of effectiveness, reproducibility, and repeatability of using dentition for estimating cattle age. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017) Apple’s First Big TV Move: A Spielberg Series Reboot. New York Times, 10 October:p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Holmes 2015; Arenkiel and Ehlers 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arenkiel and Ehlers 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Giorgi et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioSocieties
ISSN (print)1745-8552
ISSN (online)1745-8560
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

Other styles