How to format your references using the BioSocieties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioSocieties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scott, A.R. (2015) Polymers: Secrets from the deep sea. Nature 519(7544), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brittain, S.D. & Rettig, T.W. (2002) CO and H(3)(+) in the protoplanetary disk around the star HD141569. Nature 418(6893), 57–59.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, J.L.C., Everitt, B.J. & Thomas, K.L. (2004) Independent cellular processes for hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304(5672), 839–843.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palframan, W.J. et al. (2006) Anaphase inactivation of the spindle checkpoint. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5787), 680–684.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehto, J. & Hou, X. (2010) Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Chio, C.D. et al. eds. (2012) Applications of Evolutionary Computation: EvoApplications 2012: EvoCOMNET, EvoCOMPLEX, EvoFIN, EvoGAMES, EvoHOT, EvoIASP, EvoNUM, EvoPAR, EvoRISK, EvoSTIM, and EvoSTOC, Málaga, Spain, April 11-13, 2012, Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidi, K. & Xu, J.-X. (2015) Discrete-Time Adaptive Posicast Control. In: J.-X. Xu (ed.) Advanced Discrete-Time Control: Designs and Applications. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Singapore: Springer, pp. 79–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioSocieties.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) The Thawing Of Permafrost Could Cause An Additional $43 Trillion Worth Of Economic Damage. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lew, M.M. (2017) Hydroxyl, Hydroperoxyl, and Organic Peroxy Radical Chemistry in Forested Areas: Measurements, Modeling and Implications for Atmospheric Chemistry. Doctoral dissertation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010) Tango On the Beach. New York Times, 17 June:p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scott 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Scott 2015; Brittain and Rettig 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brittain and Rettig 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Palframan et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioSocieties
ISSN (print)1745-8552
ISSN (online)1745-8560
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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