How to format your references using the BioSocieties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioSocieties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tobias, P.V. (2003) Paleoanthropology. Encore Olduvai. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299(5610), 1193–1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whetten, R.L. & Price, R.C. (2007) Chemistry. Nano-golden order. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5849), 407–408.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roy, M., Jordan, T.H. & Pederson, J. (2009) Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere. Nature 459(7249), 978–982.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gonçalves, G. et al. (2014) Breakdown into nanoscale of graphene oxide: confined hot spot atomic reduction and fragmentation. Scientific reports 4, 6735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesche, R. (2015) Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mauskopf, S. & Schmaltz, T. eds. (2012) Integrating History and Philosophy of Science: Problems and Prospects, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Iwahori, Y. et al. (2014) Shape from SEM Image Using Fast Marching Method and Intensity Modification by Neural Network. In: J. W. Tweedale & L. C. Jain (eds.) Recent Advances in Knowledge-based Paradigms and Applications: Enhanced Applications Using Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Techniques. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 73–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioSocieties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) With So Much Vested In Satellites, Solar Storms Could Bring Life To A Standstill. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: Emergency Responders Receive Support, but DOT Could Improve Oversight of Information Sharing, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, S.A. (2017) An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders. Doctoral dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. & Schonbrun, Z. (2017) A Comeback and a Controversial Call Provide Some Crackle on Day 2. New York Times, 18 March:p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tobias 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Tobias 2003; Whetten and Price 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whetten and Price 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gonçalves et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioSocieties
AbbreviationBiosocieties
ISSN (print)1745-8552
ISSN (online)1745-8560
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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