How to format your references using the BioSocieties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioSocieties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geim, A.K. (2009) Graphene: status and prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5934), 1530–1534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Draine, B.T. & Ostriker, J.P. (2007) Obituary: Bohdan Paczyński (1940-2007). Nature 447(7148), 1065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muraoka, T., Kinbara, K. & Aida, T. (2006) Mechanical twisting of a guest by a photoresponsive host. Nature 440(7083), 512–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Žitnik, M. et al. (2013) Discovering disease-disease associations by fusing systems-level molecular data. Scientific reports 3, 3202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen, E., Ellis, R. & S. Pujar, N. (2014) Vaccine Development and Manufacturing, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kovacs, T. et al. eds. (2007) Learning Classifier Systems: International Workshops, IWLCS 2003-2005, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Camenisch, J. et al. (2013) Concepts and Languages for Privacy-Preserving Attribute-Based Authentication. In: S. Fischer-Hübner, E. de Leeuw, & C. Mitchell (eds.) Policies and Research in Identity Management: Third IFIP WG 11.6 Working Conference, IDMAN 2013, London, UK, April 8-9, 2013. Proceedings. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 34–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioSocieties.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016) A ‘Sixth Sense’ For Humidity Helps Insects Stay Out Of Climatic Trouble. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) A Capsule Version of: Nanomanufacturing--Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roth, M.M. (2017) Depositional Environment of the Carbonate Cap Rock at the Pine Prairie Field, Evangeline Parish, Louisiana: Implications of Salt Diapirism on Cook Mountain Reservoir Genesis. Doctoral dissertation. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kurdewan, J. (2016) Bill Cunningham, Unpublished. New York Times, 16 December:p. ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geim 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Geim 2009; Draine and Ostriker 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Draine and Ostriker 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Žitnik et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBioSocieties
ISSN (print)1745-8552
ISSN (online)1745-8560
ScopeHealth Policy
Health(social science)

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