How to format your references using the ASTRA Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASTRA Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Logothetis, N. K.: What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI, Nature, 453, 869–878, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grüter, T. and Carbon, C.-C.: Neuroscience. Escaping attention, Science, 328, 435–436, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martill, D. M., Tischlinger, H., and Longrich, N. R.: EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, Science, 349, 416–419, 2015.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lin, D. Y., Zhang, S.-Z., Block, E., and Katz, L. C.: Encoding social signals in the mouse main olfactory bulb, Nature, 434, 470–477, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belliotti, R. A.: Dante’s Deadly Sins, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Haartman, M. von: Low-Frequency Noise In Advanced Mos Devices, edited by: Östling, M., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XVI, 216 p pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Nolan, S. J., Rees, S., and Rushall, C.: Breaking Barriers: Overcoming Anxieties in Practical Science, in: Widening Participation, Higher Education and Non-Traditional Students: Supporting Transitions through Foundation Programmes, edited by: Marshall, C. A., Nolan, S. J., and Newton, D. P., Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 73–88, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASTRA Proceedings.

Blog post
Why Urban Myths About Education Are So Persistent – And How To Tackle Them:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Aviation Administration: Issues Related to FAA Reform, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, W.: Extended services post reunification to enhance parent-child attachments: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R.: Revisiting a Conductor’s Early Triumph, With Touches of Mystery and Elegance, New York Times, 11th October, C5, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Logothetis, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Logothetis, 2008; Grüter and Carbon, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grüter and Carbon, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Lin et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleASTRA Proceedings
ISSN (print)2199-3955
ISSN (online)2199-3963

Other styles