How to format your references using the ASTRA Proceedings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ASTRA Proceedings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hackney, D. D.: Biochemistry. Processive motor movement, Science, 316, 58–59, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whitaker, D. L. and Edwards, J.: Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings, Science, 329, 406, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deán-Ben, X. L., Bay, E., and Razansky, D.: Functional optoacoustic imaging of moving objects using microsecond-delay acquisition of multispectral three-dimensional tomographic data, Sci. Rep., 4, 5878, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Erlebacher, J., Aziz, M. J., Karma, A., Dimitrov, N., and Sieradzki, K.: Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying, Nature, 410, 450–453, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett, D., Moody, S., and Kindersley, K.: Dyslexia in the Workplace, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Schalk, G.: A Practical Guide to Brain–Computer Interfacing with BCI2000: General-Purpose Software for Brain–Computer Interface Research, Data Acquisition, Stimulus Presentation, and Brain Monitoring, edited by: Mellinger, J., Springer, London, XXIII, 260 p pp., 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Reddy, S., Shilton, K., Burke, J., Estrin, D., Hansen, M., and Srivastava, M.: Using Context Annotated Mobility Profiles to Recruit Data Collectors in Participatory Sensing, in: Location and Context Awareness: 4th International Symposium, LoCA 2009 Tokyo, Japan, May 7-8, 2009 Proceedings, edited by: Choudhury, T., Quigley, A., Strang, T., and Suginuma, K., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 52–69, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ASTRA Proceedings.

Blog post
Alien-Looking Spiky, Leggy Worm Gets a Head for the First Time:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kreisel, M.: Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stack, L. and Schweber, N.: 2 Shot by Undercover New York City Officer in Westchester, New York Times, 29th August, A14, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hackney, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hackney, 2007; Whitaker and Edwards, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whitaker and Edwards, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Erlebacher et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleASTRA Proceedings
ISSN (print)2199-3955
ISSN (online)2199-3963

Other styles